AXELROD Julius (Axelrod)( American biochemist and pharmacologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1970)
Comments for AXELROD Julius (Axelrod)
Biography AXELROD Julius (Axelrod)
genus. May 30, 1912
American biochemist and pharmacologist Julius Axelrod was born in New York. His parents were Molly Axelrod (Leyhtling) and Isadora Axelrod. Julius attended the City College in New York and in 1933. received the title of Bachelor. In connection with restrictions on admission of the Jews he was unable to enter the medical college, has worked as a lab assistant at the department of bacteriology Medical College, New York University, and since 1935. chemist in the laboratory of industrial hygiene, while engaging in the study of medicine. In 1941, Mr.. A. received a master's degree at New York University.
While working in the laboratory (where, incidentally, in an accident a. blind in one eye), a scientist became acquainted with a professor at New York University Bernard Brodie. Brodie works on the breakdown and transformations of medicinal substances in the body, had a great influence on modern methodology for developing and testing drugs. In 1946, Mr.. A. moved to the 3rd Research Division New York University at the hospital named Goldwater and there was to work with Brody. After 3 years both researchers have gone to work in the National Cardiology Institute in Bethesda (Maryland). By this time A. far advanced in their biochemical studies, particularly in the metabolism of drugs, but its further growth as a scientist impeded that he did not have doctoral. In this regard, A. had a very great help professor of pharmacology at the University of J. Washington Paul Smith. He was able to appreciate the ability of scientists and did much to. that in 1955. A. received his doctorate. Immediately prior to this event A. agreed to assume the post of head of the department of pharmacology in the laboratory of clinical disciplines newly created National Institute of Mental Health (NIMHE).
In the early 50-ies. A. and Brodie have studied amphetamines - powerful stimulants, similar to the catecholamines (natural substances the body). Of the first group of catecholamines was opened adrenaline, or epinephrine. In 1946, Mr.. Ulf von Euler showed that the precursor of adrenaline - noradrenaline - plays the role of mediator, that is, chemical substances released by nerve cells, stimulating or inhibiting neighboring neurons or other cells of. Mediators - are the main carriers of impulses between the cells of the nervous system. Mediators catecholamine groups are adrenaline, . precursor of norepinephrine and dopamine, norepinephrine, to the mediators of other groups are acetylcholine (the first one discovered mediators, . open Otto Loewi and Henry Dale), . serotonin, and some amino acids.,
. In studying the pharmacological properties of amphetamines A
. gained a wealth of material relating to the collapse and the exchange of these substances in the body. However, as he wrote later, 'was surprised to find how little was known about the metabolism of adrenaline and noradrenaline'. That is what A. engaged shortly after admission to the NIMHE. A few years later. This was shown in group A
, , , , ,
. A. same showed that finite stage transmission pulse using catecholamine serves their converse suction in presynaptic fiber. with staff proved quantum allocation also and for noradrenalina. Today commonplace, . what quantum allocation attributable order, . that presinapticheskih cells neurotransmitters stored in petty bubbles - granules, . Thus each such vesicle contains certain quantity mediator, . and all of this amount is released simultaneously.,
. It was critical that the work of a
. clarify the mechanism of action of psychotropic substances (first detected in the 50's.), . used for treatment fundamental mental diseases: schizophrenia, . manic and depressive states, . Although use these substances produced real revolution in psychiatry, . remained all same open-several issues, . associated with their use,
. Effectiveness their was very high, however was unaware nor how they operate nor what are path their decay in organism nor as receive similar preparations.
. In his first papers to study the metabolism of norepinephrine in the autonomic nervous system (this is where Euler showed a mediator role of noradrenaline) A
. found, . that such substances, . as cocaine and reserpine (final drug used to lower high blood pressure), . participate in the exchange of catecholamines, . Turned, . that they alter the content of neurotransmitter in vesicles, . rate of their separation or interaction with mediators of the presynaptic cell.,
. Early experiments A
. Research activity of catecholamines were placed in a test tube or conducted on the structures of the autonomic nervous system. He introduced the experimental animals, synthetic norepinephrine and epinephrine were labeled with a radioactive label, and could easily trace the path of making these substances in the body. However, the brain does not communicate directly with blood: he is separated from her so-called blood-brain barrier. Catecholamines, as well as many other substances through the barrier does not pass. In 1964, Mr.. One of my colleagues A., Jacques Glovinski, developed a method of 'bypass' blood-brain barrier: he introduced labeled catecholamines directly into the ventricles. This method was later applied to NIMHE and other institutions for the study of brain neurotransmitters and pharmacological characteristics of psychotropic substances.
Hormones and neurotransmitters are closely linked. And those and others are chemical substances released by some cells and affect other. Thus, epinephrine and norepinephrine may in some cases be a mediator, and in others - hormones. In the late 60-ies. A. focused its attention on the relationship of hormones and neurotransmitters with a lot of research devoted to the influence of mediators on the release of hormones (eg, in the epiphysis) and the influence of hormones on the selection of mediators (eg, in the adrenal glands).
. Nobel Prize for 1970
. in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to A., Katz and Euler 'for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve endings and mechanisms for their storage, release and inactivation ". At the end of his Nobel speech, A. stressed that 'those substances which are effectively used to treat mental disorders, neurological and cardiovascular diseases, affect the capture, storage, allocation, education and exchange of catecholamines. The data relating to the laws of the peripheral and central nervous system have shed light on the causes and treatment of mental disorders, Parkinson's disease and hypertension. "
A. won many awards and honorary degrees, . including the international award Gardner Fund (1967), . Award for outstanding achievements of George Washington University (1968), . Medals Claude Bernard University of Montreal (1969), . Albert Einstein Award for outstanding achievement Yeshiva University (1971), . Prize Toralda Sollmena in pharmacology of the American Society of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy (1973) and Paul Award of the American Association of psychopathology Hoca (1975),
. He is a member of the Royal Society of London. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. American Chemical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He was awarded honorary degrees from the University of Chicago, Medical College of Wisconsin, New York University, Medical College of Pennsylvania and George Washington University.