Bunting (Banting), Frederick G.( Canadian physiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1923)
Comments for Bunting (Banting), Frederick G.
Biography Bunting (Banting), Frederick G.
November 14, 1891, Mr.. - 21 February 1941
Canadian physiologist Frederick Grant Banting, the youngest of five children of William Thompson Bunting and Margaret (Grant) Bunting, was born on a farm not far from Alliston (Ontario). Studying in local public schools, he was involved in sports and fond of drawing and painting. In an effort to meet the expectations of parents who wanted to see the son of a priest in 1912. entered the theological faculty of the University of Toronto, but in the end of that year, realizing that he really interested in medicine, transferred to the university medical school.
When the First World War, B. in 1915. enlisted in the ranks of the medical corps of the Royal Canadian Army. However, he was sent back to medical school and a year later he graduated with a Bachelor of Medicine. During the next two years B. served as a military surgeon in England and then in France, where the Battle of Cambrai was seriously wounded by shrapnel in his right forearm. Realizing that amputation would mean the end of his surgical career, he persuaded the doctor to postpone the operation, as a result of the hand was saved.
After the war, B. returned to Toronto and spent two years working as a surgeon in a children's hospital. In the summer of 1920,. He moved to London (Ontario) and opened a private surgical practice. However, when it became clear that this undertaking is not justified from a financial point of view, B. accepted the offer of a position as assistant professor in the medical school of the University of Western Ontario, located in the same city. Simultaneously, he was engaged in research under the guidance of neurophysiologist F.R. Miller.
Childhood friend B. died from the disease, now known as diabetes. This tragic incident as a pretext that made B. seek a cure for this disease. Diabetes mellitus has been described in the I. n. e. Roman physicians Celsius and Aretha, who noted in some patients excessive urination, excessive thirst and weight loss. In the XVII century. English physician Thomas Willis observed that patients with such symptoms urine has a sweetish taste. Later, . in the XIX century., . found, . that in the small intestine is the transformation of starch into glucose, . which then comes from the bloodstream into the liver, . where is deposited in the form of glycogen (krahmalopodobnogo substance, . consisting of residues of glucose molecules, . connected in the chain).,
. It was believed that the disease diabetes, the pancreas is involved, tk
. Tissue samples of the body, taken from dead people from diabetes, seemed to be affected by the disease. In 1889, Mr.. German physician Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski surgically removed the pancreas in dogs and watched in the future of these animals is a sharp rise in the concentration of glucose in the blood and urine, . and the presence of symptoms, . Similar to the clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus.,
. Pancreas - an organ with two main types of secretory cells
. Acinar cells synthesize and secrete a pancreatic duct, digestive enzymes, then the enzymes enter the small intestine, where it participates in the process of digestion. Islet cells (found in the islets of Langerhans - the structures of irregular shape, located in the pancreas) synthesize and release insulin directly into the blood. Insulin promotes glucose uptake by cells, where it is used as an energy source. If the cells can not receive glucose, they begin to utilize fat (in the form of fatty acids). As a result of biochemical lipolysis in a shortage of insulin diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the blood and tissues increases the content of ketone bodies and the shift of acid-base balance of the organism in the direction of acidosis. Before they started to use insulin, a condition usually is fatal.
The first attempts to make insulin produced by islet cells, compounded by the fact that this hormone is destroyed by trypsin, an enzyme acinar cells. One evening in October 1920. B. Moses Barron read the article, which described the blockade of pancreatic duct gallstones and developing as a result of atrophy of the acinar cells. That same night, B., waking up, recorded for the memory: 'tie pancreatic duct in dogs. Wait six to eight weeks. Remove and extract '. He hoped, . what, . 'bandaging ducts and wait for some time, . necessary for the destruction of acinar cells, . be able to find a way to get extract ostrovkovgh cells, . not exposed to the damaging effects of trypsin and other pancreatic enzymes'.,
. At the suggestion of Miller B
. talked about his idea to John JP. McLeod, Professor, physiologist, University of Toronto, who in his position could give B. needed for research equipment. According to B., McLeod initially ridiculed the proposed project to him, only after repeated visits to his office B. finally received the necessary support. Eventually Macleod provided for research laboratory space and ten dogs, and also provided assistance to a laboratory of Charles Best, a medical student, who could well determine the content of sugar in the blood and urine. B. retired from the University of Western Ontario and returned to Toronto.
In May, 1921. B. and Best started in the University of Toronto in a series of experiments, while McLeod went to rest in Scotland. By his return in August, B. and Best succeeded in extracting insulin from pancreatic islet tissue of dogs. Experimenters have also removed the pancreas from a dog, and then entered the extract islet tissue dying from ketoacidosis animal. The dog recovered: blood glucose decreased to normal limits, and urine glucose generally disappeared.
Somewhat later in the year, B. Best and reported the results of their research at a meeting of the club 'Physiological magazine, University of Toronto, and in December, 1921. addressed the American Physiological Society in New Haven (Conn.). At this time in the present report, and McLeod, who continue to use all the capabilities of its faculty to achieve extraction and purification of large amounts of insulin. For this he needed help biochemist Dzh.B. Kollipa and McLeod connecting it to the project. In January 1922. Children's Hospital, Mr.. Toronto was first carried out a successful insulin treatment: the patient was 14-year-old boy with severe juvenile form of diabetes. A series of clinical trials that determined the biological effects of insulin and allowed to develop key recommendations for its clinical use. Further definition of drug dose in the treatment carried B., . which assign different amounts of insulin, . obtained from the pancreas of cattle, . Dr. Joe Dzhilkraystu, . his former classmates, . become ill with diabetes and voluntarily consented to the experiment.,
. Later that same year, McLeod reported the discovery of insulin at a meeting of the Association of American Physicians, issued a press statement
. According to one biographer B., who was present at this event, the statement McLeod sounded as if a discovery of insulin was his merit, and colleagues have only helped him. This incident is so derived from a BS that later, working with Kollipom, whom he considered an ally of McLeod, he 'could not resist and suddenly struck [him]'. This episode was quite atypical for TB, known for his kindness and generosity, who sought to save even laboratory animals from unnecessary pain.
Rather than get a patent on insulin and subsequently fabulously rich, B. conveys all the rights the University of Toronto. In the future, the rights to produce insulin transferred to the Canadian Council on Health Research, and at the end of 1922. new drug appeared on the medicinal market.
In the same year, B. wrote a doctoral thesis on the results of their research and received the University of Toronto degree of Doctor of Medicine. He gained international fame. In 1923, Mr.. Ontario government established the University of Toronto from the division of medical research named B. and Best, the decree of the Canadian Parliament B. received annuity. In honor of him in Toronto was established as the name BA Research Foundation, Institute name B., Bantingovskie memorial reading.
B. and MacLeod shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923. 'for the discovery of insulin'. Enraged by the fact that among the winners was not Best, B. threatened to abandon the awards, but, heeding the advice, did not do this. He, however, gave half the money he had received Best, publicly announcing their contribution to the discovery of insulin. (Members of the Nobel committee later agreed to a confidential opinion that Besta should have been included in the number of awardees.)
In 1924, Mr.. B. married Marion Robertson; they had a son. In 1932, Mr.. first marriage ended in divorce, and in 1939. B. married Henrietta Bell.
Shortly before World War II B. carried away by aviation medicine, in particular the study of biological effects on human flights at high altitudes. In 1940. B. voluntarily joined the Canadian Air Force as a military liaison officers. He delivered an important message from Canada to England. In 1941, Mr.. military aircraft, which flew BA, crashed in a remote area of Newfoundland. B. died before they arrived, the rescue team.
King George V awarded B. a knighthood, he was also elected a member of the Royal Society of London, an honorary member of the Royal College of Surgeons and Royal College of Physicians. B. Reeve won a University of Toronto (1922), . Prize Cameron and honor to give lectures at Edinburgh University (1927), . Fleyvella Medal of the Royal Society of Canada, . as well as honorary degrees at Queens College (New York) and the University of Toronto.,