Baranja (Barany), Robert( Austrian physiologist and specialist otohirurgii, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1914)
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Biography Baranja (Barany), Robert
April 22, 1876, Mr.. - April 8, 1936
Robert Bц¦rц¦ny, Austrian physiologist and specialist otohirurgii, was born in Vienna. His parents were Mary Hock, the daughter of a scientist, and Ignaz Barany, Hungarian Jew who worked as a bank clerk and manager. In the family, except Robert, the eldest, was still five children. In childhood B. suffered tuberculosis. After recovery under the influence of the mother, which was able to instill his son craving for intellectual and scientific activities, he became interested in medicine. Robert brilliantly graduated from high school and University of Vienna and in 1900. received a medical degree. After graduating from the University B. the year to specialize in internal medicine in Frankfurt. Then he spent two years studying nerve disease in Heidelberg and the University of Freiburg, and on his return to Vienna in the year held an internship as a surgeon.
In 1903, Mr.. B. began working as an assistant professor in the clinic of ear disease, University of Vienna. In this clinic, ear diseases of infectious origin are usually treated by flushing the ear canal with warm water, while in patients periodically arose dizziness. B. noticed that during such episodes patients experienced nystagmus - the characteristic rhythmic movement of the eyeballs.
Even in 1825, Mr.. Czech physiologist Jan Purkynд? (Purkinje) found that the nystagmus is an involuntary reaction, associated with dizziness. At the end of XIX century. found that dizziness occurs when pererazdrazhenii vestibular apparatus - bags before and three semicircular canals filled with fluid located in the inner ear balance organ and employees. The fluid in these channels - endolymph - does not move in strict accordance with the movements of the body, and slightly varies, like water in a bucket. In the vestibular apparatus has cells that perceive these fluctuations, the information from them is consistent with the visual sensations. Therefore, we are aware of himself, his body in the world around them.
Dizziness occurs when the signals of body movement, coming from the optic analyzer and the vestibular apparatus, are in contradiction with each other. This occurs, . when the endolymph in the semicircular canals moves, . and no surrounding objects (eg, . After riding on the carousel), or, . opposite, . when moving objects around, . not endolymph (eg, . if a man stands motionless in a room with moving walls),
. Nystagmus in these cases - a reflex motion of the eyeballs, thanks to which we aspire to match the information from the visual analyzer and the vestibular apparatus.
. However, only those data could not explain why patients B
. when washing the ears of the sensations of vertigo. The key to solving this puzzle was found when B. once washed the ear of the patient at first too cold, then too hot water. In both cases, the patient appeared dizziness. Later B. noted:
'... Nystagmus is washed with hot water had the opposite direction in relation to the nystagmus, arising from the washing with cold water. Suddenly I realized that, apparently, the cause of nystagmus is in the temperature of the water '. Using cold water cools the endolymph, which is located closer to the ear canal. Since the cooling liquid becomes heavier, it sinks to the bottom of the endolymph of the semicircular canal and is replaced by warm endolymph; latter in turn cools and sinks, etc.. As a result, fluid in the semicircular canals moves, but the body and visual images remain motionless - there is dizziness. Washing the ear as hot water causes the reverse movement of the liquid, and therefore, nystagmus - a compensatory reflex response - has the opposite direction.
. Like most of the senses, the vestibular apparatus is the pair formation - it is located in the right and left temporal bones
. Opening B. caloric (heat) reaction was a milestone in the study of the vestibular apparatus, tk. first opportunity to study separately the functions of each semicircular canal. Calorization ear for B. still remains the most frequently used method of studying the state of the semicircular canals in healthy people. In addition, this method is valuable in the diagnosis of lesions of the inner ear, as if he damaged the vestibular apparatus, nystagmus when calorization ear does not arise.
B. was calm, conscientious investigator. The first work devoted to the study of the vestibular apparatus, he published in 1906. Three years later he was appointed assistant professor at the University of Vienna. When in 1914. the First World War, B. volunteer enrolled in the medical service of the Austrian army and was assigned to the fortress of Przemysl in Galicia (Poland). Here he developed a new method of treating gunshot wounds of the brain. This method is now so widespread that would be considered as self-evident: the affected tissue and foreign bodies are removed, the wound disinfected and immediately tightly closed.
When in April 1915. Russian army occupied Przemysl, B. was captured and was sent to prison camp in Turkestan. In Camp B. provided medical assistance to both local people and Austrian prisoners of war. Here he learned that in 1914. he was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus'. The congratulatory speech, Professor Gunnar Holmgren of the Karolinska Institute said that after the opening of B. 'for 10 years was rapid, almost revolutionary development of otology, for which the work of the scientist were both the foundation and the leitmotif'. Despite all the efforts of the Swedish Prince Carl, the Russian tsar agreed to release B, only two years. Only then B. able to get the Nobel Prize in Sweden and return to Vienna.
B Triumph. was short. Shortly after his return to medical school employees accused him of that in some of his articles he referred to the work of other researchers. And although almost all of these accusations were unfounded, B. left Vienna, moved to Sweden, where he became a professor and chair of otolaryngology at Uppsala University. Here he continued work on the vestibular apparatus. In his writings he has shown the importance of links between the vestibular apparatus and the nervous system to maintain balance and coordination.
In 1909, Mr.. B. married Ida Felicitas Berger. They had two sons and a daughter, all of whom became doctors. B. died in Sweden after several apoplexy, not having lived only a few weeks before his 60-year anniversary. In memory of the scientist was cast gold medal, which has since time in 5 years is awarded Uppsala University researcher whose work on the vestibular apparatus recognizes the most outstanding. Established as a society named AB, the members of his becoming the most famous scientists in this field of science. Outstanding scientist, B. was also an excellent pianist (he especially liked the music of Robert Schumann), was fond of mountaineering and tennis.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, B. was also awarded medals Germanskogo Neurological Society (1913) and Jubilee medal from the Swedish Medical Society (1925).