Burnet (Burnet), McFarlane( Australian immunologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1960)
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Biography Burnet (Burnet), McFarlane
September 3, 1899, Mr.. - August 31, 1985
Australian immunologist Frank Macfarlane Burnet was born in Traralgon Province (Victoria), the family manager of Colonial Bank, Frank Burnet and Hadassah Pollock Burnett (McKay). McFarlane was the second of six children. In childhood he was interested in natural sciences and especially loved to collect beetles. After Geelong College in 1917, Mr. McFarlane. entered the Medical School of Ormond College, University of Melbourne. In 1922, Mr.. He received a bachelor's degree, and in 1923. - Medical certificate. He then continued training in pathology at Melbourne hospital. Since the hospital was connected the whole follow-up to SB, although many years he worked at the University of Melbourne and the Institute for Medical Research Walter and Eliza Halls at the University.
Around the time when B. joined the Institute (1924), he read the classic work of Felix d'Erellya on bacteriophages 'Bacteriophage: Its Role in Immunity' ( 'Le Bacteriophage: son role dans 1'immunte', 1921). Bacteriophage - a virus that attacks bacteria. B. particularly interested in environmental and genetic relationship between these microorganisms and their 'masters'. In 1926, Mr.. He received a scholarship for medical research, which gave him the opportunity to work in the Lister Institute in London. In 1927, Mr.. He received his doctorate at London University.
In 1928, Mr.. B. returned to Melbourne. Strong influence on its further work had loss of 12 children who were vaccinated against diphtheria. During the investigation B. found that the children's deaths were caused by contamination of vaccines with the bacterium Staphylococcus. His interested in the question of how the body protects against such infections.
Thanks to special grants for the study of viral diseases in 1932 ... 1933. B. continued research in the field of animal viruses at the National Institute for Medical Research in Hampstead (UK). During work, he perfected the technique of cultivation of viruses in chicken embryos. Viruses - are parasites, unable to exist outside of living cells, while mammalian cells is difficult to grow in laboratory conditions in vitro. B. Methods that allow the virus to multiply in a closed environment (chicken embryos), were the most valuable in virology up until John Enders and his colleagues in 1974. not developed more sophisticated methods of cultivation of cells.
The success of the B. in the cultivation of viruses in chicken embryos because the embryos of chickens not produce antibodies against the virus and, therefore, can not resist viral infection. Antibodies were detected in 1890. Emil von Behring, who established jointly with the Paul Ehrlich and other colleagues that may arise in the blood of immune responses to various substances, or antigens. Develop antibodies are highly specific, antibodies to one strain of bacteria often do not react with the closest strain. Thus, immunity to mumps does not protect against rubella.
In terms of BA, all the theories to explain the formation of antibodies, can be divided into two groups. 'According to the theories of selection, - he wrote later - activates pre-existing antigen specific reaction, in accordance with the same instructional theories of the formation of a new antigen is this reaction in the respective cells'. Ehrlich, who developed the first serious theory of immunity (breeding), believed that the antibodies are receptors on the cell surface, in response to the binding of antigens with cells begin to produce antibodies in excess.
. In the 30-ies., . after Carl Landshteycher found, . that mice can produce antibodies to a variety of chemical, . not occurring under natural conditions, . Ehrlich's theory and other theories have been bred to a large extent shaken,
. It seemed unlikely that the animals could exist a number of specific receptors preformirovannyh to unusual substances, and therefore most immunologists have become adherents of theories of instruction. The most serious of these was the theory proposed by Linus K. Pauling, assume that the antigens are captured by the cells and antibody molecules envelop them, thus forming a tight-fitting a specific matrix.
B. believed that the guidance theory does not take into account what he called 'the key issue of Immunology', namely 'as the immunized animals are distinguished by their substance introduced another species of animals by their own similar veschestvN'. From the standpoint of instructional theories, in his opinion, hardly could explain such samoraspoznavanie, ie. ability to 'learn' own proteins. Based on their data on, . that chick embryos do not develop antibodies to the viruses, . He suggested, . that animals do not produce antibodies to all substances, . which fall in their bodies at the early stages of development, . and that this early contact with the antibody plays a key role in samoraspoznavanii and tolerance (tolerance) to its own substances.,
. and his colleagues from the Institute for Medical Research have tried to develop artificial tolerance in chickens, in a short time acting on them synthetic antigens. However, this attempt failed, tk. - It turned out later - for the formation of long-term tolerance contact with antigen must also be long-term. In 1953, Mr.. Peter B. Medawar and his colleagues have made an artificial tolerance, using transplanted organs, and thus confirmed the theory of B.
In 1960, Mr.. B. and Medawar was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of artificial immune tolerance '. Their work, oprovergnuvshaya instructional theory, initiated the development of modern theories of immunity. In his Nobel lecture 'Immune samoraspoznavanie' ( 'Immunological Recognition of Self') B. considered the 'only one problem: how the body distinguishes vertebrates' their 'from' others 'in regard to immunologic and how to develop this sposobnostN' In conclusion, he said, . that 'the only possible approach to solving this problem are the selection theory of immunity, . which should be developed on the cell and, . perhaps, . clonal basis. ",
. According clonally-selection theory, developed in the late 50-ies
. B., David Talmeydzhem, Niels K. Jerne and Joshua Lederberg, the embryo contains the 'samples' of the tens, hundreds or millions of antibodies, which can be shaped in the adult animal. Each antibody-producing cell can produce only one type of antibody. During the critical period of fetal development and early vneutrobnoy life of every cell, occurring with an antigen corresponding to its specific antibody (ie. 'own' antigen), is destroyed or inactivated. As a result, by the end of the critical period in all the cells carry antibodies against the organism's own antigens, are removed from the set of antibody-producing cells.
In 1965, Mr.. B. retired, but continued to conduct important research in the field of immunology, in particular on aging, autoimmune diseases, which are broken tolerance to their own agents, and cancer. In addition, he wrote a series of popular science books on biology, medicine and human nature, as well as an autobiography called 'shifting pattern' ( 'Changing Patterns', 1968).
In 1928, Mr.. B. married to an Austrian citizen, Edith Linda Drews. In the family they were born a son and two daughters. In 1973, Mr.. his wife died, and three years later, B. married Hazelle Yenkin. B. died of cancer in Melbourne, August 31, 1985
B. was awarded a Royal medal (1947) and the Copley medal (1959) London Royal Scientific Society. In 1947, Mr.. He was elected a member of this society. In 1951, Mr.. he was awarded a knighthood, and in 1953. He became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons