BEAUVAIS Daniele (Bovet)( Swiss-Italian pharmacologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1957)
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Biography BEAUVAIS Daniele (Bovet)
Swiss-Italian pharmacologist Daniel Bovet was born in Neuchatel. His parents were Pierre Bove, professor, University of Geneva, and Amy Beauvais (Babyu). In Daniel, the family had three daughters. Subsequently B. wrote: 'We children were guinea pigs for his father, where he tested his theory of learning, and it was simply wonderful'. Pierre and Amy Bove encourage their children to conduct various experiments, among which was growing mold in the banks and mushrooms in the cellar. Having led his father's schooling, B. enrolled in the University of Geneva for the study of zoology and comparative anatomy. In 1927, Mr.. He received a master's degree, and after two years of work as an assistant in physiology at the Medical School B. received his PhD.
Accepting the invitation to work at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, B. became the assistant Ernest Forno, chief of laboratory chemotherapy. This researcher has had a great influence on the follow-up B. In 1935, while working at the Pasteur Institute, B. learned about the results of the work of the German biochemist Gerhard Domagk, discovered that red-orange dye sulfanildiaminobenzen destroys streptococci - pathogens that cause many diseases. Despite the fact that large molecules of this dye were effective when injected into the human body, B. unable to achieve the same effect in a laboratory culture. From this he concluded that the active principle could be part of the molecule, released from her cleavage in the body. Together with A. Staub B. began work on identifying the structure of this particular area and after several months of hard work was able to identify sulfanilamide, which destroys the streptococci in the body, and in cultures. This work led to the creation of the first 'magic bullet' - substances that act directly on the causative agent. Later B. synthesized many derivatives of sulfanilamide, trying to get a substance in which a powerful antimicrobial action combined with a mild side-effects. Found that the most promising in this respect derivatives include complex carbon group that is substituted in the sulfonamide molecule hydrogen atoms. B. created a whole family sulfanilamides.
In 1939, Mr.. B., replacing Forno at the head of the Laboratory of chemotherapy, began exploring the pathological inflammation caused by histamine - a biologically active substance occurring in the norm in all tissues. In the case where one or the other stimulus (such as pollen or bee sting) cause local overproduction of histamine, there is an inflammatory edema, which may be more damaging to the organism than the stimulus. B. interested in the fact that histamine, in contrast to some of the hormones the body, which he studied, there is no natural antagonists. At the same time it was known that histamine in its structure similar to adrenaline and acetylcholine, which are antagonists are. He also knew that histamine may have a toxic effect, except when it is absorbed from the intestine. From these data, he concluded that, as in the case of the sulfonamide, only a part of the molecule histamine, is active and this activity is normally suppressed by molecule - 'carrier'. The challenge, therefore, was to find a substance that can reliably block the effect of free histamine. B. began with tests of two groups of substances - simpatolitikov and cholinolytics blocking the action of adrenaline, respectively, and acetylcholine. A year later, he synthesized the first antihistamine compound - timoksidietilamin. Appears, however, that this substance is too toxic for clinical use, and therefore B. for the period from 1937 to 1941. delivered more than 3 thousand. experiments in which tried to find a less toxic compound. It is in these works B. revealed the structural laws of most antihistamines, substances used in the present.
In 1947, Mr.. B. moved to Rome and was appointed Head of Laboratory of chemotherapy in the Higher Institute of Public Health. His move to Rome was related not only to the fact that his wife Filomena Nitti, whom he married in 1939, was an Italian, but also better conditions for scientific work than at the Pasteur Institute. At spouses B. had one son, they tied not only to family interests, but also work together. In 1947, Mr.. B. became an Italian citizen.
The Institute of Health B. interested in relaxing (relaxing the muscles), the action of curare - a highly toxic alkaloid extracted from the juice of various tropical plants and used as a poison for arrows wetting South American Indians. In order to familiarize himself with the substance, B. spent some time among the Indians of Brazil. Curare blocks the nerve-muscle connection and is used to relieve spasms in tetanus, the treatment of muscle spasticity and general anesthesia. Before the steel used curare, if surgery was necessary to relieve muscle spasm give large doses of anesthesia, and that was dangerous for the patient.
For 10 years before the B. began to explore curare, its active principle in the plant extracts were identified by Harold King, and in chemically pure form, obtained by Thomas Cullen, along with one of his staff. Because the effects of curare were malopredskazuemy, B. decided to find the synthetic analogue of curare, which would be more 'manageable' than the natural substance, and at the same time it preserves the properties. This goal was achieved in 1946, when B. synthesized gallamin. Over the next 8 years B. in search of more simple synthetic analogs of curare has created more than 400 such compounds in t.ch. widely used drug succinylcholine.
In 1957. 'for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that block the action of certain substances of the organism, and in particular for the detection of their actions on the vascular system and the muscles', B. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In his Nobel lecture, he summarized his work over the previous two decades, and finally said: 'The Future of pharmacodynamics ... so rich and promising, . it opens up such theoretical and practical possibilities, . I hope to meet my future work not only this wonderful award, . which I presented today, . but also the confidence and friendship of my teachers and colleagues, . whose work is inseparable from my,
. And I continue his work with the faith, enthusiasm and love '.
In the 60-ies. B. became intensely engaged in problems of interaction between chemicals and the brain, suggesting that 'a clue to the mental illness lies in the field of chemistry'. In 1964, Mr.. he became professor of pharmacology at the University of Sassari, and from 1969 to 1975. was director of the Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology at the National Research Council in Rome. Since 1971. he served as professor of psychobiology at the University of Rome.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, B. Martin was awarded Demureta French Academy of Sciences (1936), Award of General Muto Italian Academy of Sciences (1941), Award Bourget, University of Bern (1949) and a gold medal Addingema University of Leeds (1952). He was awarded the French Legion of Honor (1946) and Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (1959). He is a member of scientific societies of many countries, t.ch. French Chemical Society. Italian National Academy of Sciences. American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society of London.