Vane (Vane), John R.( English pharmacologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1982)
Comments for Vane (Vane), John R.
Biography Vane (Vane), John R.
genus. March 29, 1927
English pharmacologist John Robert Vane was born in Tardebigge (Worcestershire) and was the youngest of three children of Maurice Wayne, the son of Russian immigrants, and Francesca Florence (Fisher) Wayne, the daughter of farmers. After completion of primary education in public school, John enrolled in secondary school of King Edward IV in the vicinity of Birmingham. During the German air raids, which began in 1940, the family in. spent many nights in a bomb shelter in the garden.
At age 12, parents gave John a set of chemical reagents, after which the boy passionately carried away by chemical experiments. In 1944, Mr.. he entered the University of Birmingham with the intention to engage in chemistry, but his interest in this discipline soon began to subside. When one of the professors asked him to do pharmacology at Oxford, with Harold Bern, he later recalled how, 'seize the opportunity and immediately went to the library to find out what the pharmacology'. He considered this decision to an event that changed his career.
After receiving in 1946. Bachelor of Science in Birmingham in. within two years he was an intern researcher in a pharmaceutical laboratory in Berne, Oxford, where you learn the necessary rules and principles of biological experiments, research methods. Laboratory method, known as biological analysis allows researchers to determine the biological activity of a substance by measuring its effects in the test system. Bern taught 'never neglected unusual' in the experimental observations and calls for. to pharmacology business of his life. In 1948, Mr.. V. completed the preparation for research in the field of pharmacology.
After several months of work as an assistant researcher in the pharmacological department of Sheffield University in. returned to Oxford to conduct research for the degree of Doctor of Science in Nuffield Institute for Medical Research. Scholarship Stozerta Royal Society of London enabled him in 1951. complete the work, and two years later he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In 1953, Mr.. V. moved to New Gaven (Conn.), where he worked as a teacher first, and then assistant professor of pharmacology at Yale University until returning to England in 1955
Over the next 7 years in. was a senior lecturer at the Institute of Basic Medical Research at the Royal College of Surgeons. He has lectured in pharmacology in the period from 1961 to 1965. and from 1966 to 1973. was Professor of Experimental Pharmacology. During this time he developed a bioassay cascade superfuzionny - method to measure the biological effects of several substances simultaneously in parallel test systems. Using this method,. and his colleagues studied a group of hormone-like natural substances called prostaglandins.
Prostaglandins were first described by scientists and gynecologists College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Through artificial insemination, they noticed that the seminal fluid causes a change in the contractile ability of uterus. In the late 30-ies. Ulf von Euler was extracted from semen of sheep substance has a similar effect on the contractile function of the uterus. He called this substance is a prostaglandin, tk. it was first discovered in the secret of the prostate. Euler kept these extracts to the end of the Second World War and in 1945. handed them Sune Bergstrom of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden for further study.
In the late 50's and early 60-ies. Bergstrom and his colleague, Bengt Samuelsson determine the chemical structure of some prostaglandins. In the early 70-ies. Samuelson found that prostaglandins produced in the body from arachidonic, unsaturated fatty acids present in some vegetables and meat. He also found that arachidonic acid and the system, turning it into Prostaglandins are present in all eukaryotic (having a nucleus) cells of animals. Different tissues synthesize different prostaglandins, which perform different biological functions. In addition, Samuelson singled out a substance similar to prostaglandin, which he called tromboksanom, differs from the first molecular structure.
In the 60-ies. V. and his colleagues at the Royal College of Surgeons used a cascade superfuzionny bioassay for determining the biological activity of some prostagladinov and tromboksanov and showed, . that some of them are biologically inactive, . passing only once through the pulmonary circulation,
. V. correctly assumed that these rapidly inaktiviruemye substances are effective only locally, in their place of release. For this reason they can not be hormones, such as hydrocortisone or adrenaline, which circulates in the blood. It was found that the rapidly activating substance, including prostaglandins E and I, and thromboxane A2, affect the status of the lumen of blood vessels. Prostaglandins Group E - vasodilators - expands blood vessels, relaxing smooth muscle fibers of the walls of blood vessels, and thus lead to a decrease in blood pressure. Prostaglandins Group I - vasoconstrictor, causing contraction of smooth muscle fibers of blood vessels and lead to an increase in blood pressure. Thromboxane A2 is a potential vasoconstrictor.
To work in the Royal College of Surgeons, in. in 1971. found that aspirin inhibits the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane A2. Because he is coagulation of blood, you can use small doses of aspirin to reduce the risk of thrombosis of the coronary arteries (the closure of the lumen by blood clots). Research In. also explain why aspirin is as effective means. Although aspirin was used from the beginning of the century, scientists did not anticipate that it reduces pain and lowers the temperature, inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins.
Appointed in 1973. Director of Research and Development Fund Uilkama in London,. organized a group to study prostaglandins, led by Salvador Moncada. Moncada intended to carry out studies of tissue blood vessels, in particular the cells that form the inside layer. Scientists have found that these cells synthesize a completely different prostaglandin called they have, which is now called prostacyclin, or PgI2. It was found that the thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin have opposing effects on thrombus formation and vascular smooth muscle. Thromboxane A2 stimulates the formation of thrombus and causes vasoconstriction, whereas prostacyclin inhibits blood clotting and leads to vasodilatation. Prostacyclin is the most potent inhibitor of blood coagulation of the currently known. V. and Moncada suggested that the thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin are a kind of homeostatic system, thus saving, the opposite forces in equilibrium. Thromboxane A2 accelerates thrombus formation in areas damaged vascular wall; prostacyclin reduces the size of a blood clot and makes it possible to maintain circulation. The latter is used in various clinical situations, . including the prevention of thrombotic formation in the apparatus, . used to maintain circulation during open heart surgery, . and protect the myocardium from damage during strokes.,
. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982. with Bergstremom and Samuelson 'for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances'. In his Nobel lecture 'successes and excursions in bioassay: the steps to prostacyclin' ( 'Adventures and Excursions in Bioassay: The Stepping Stones to Prostacyclin') in. reviewed the study of prostacyclin and its effect on the bloodstream.
. Discovery of subtype prostaglandin X (prostacyclin) and the ability of aspirin to block the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid have been remarkable advances in the study of prostaglandin
. Research In. showed to a new way of studying the mechanisms of emergence and prevention of strokes - the leading cause of death in the United States and other industrialized countries. 'In the next twenty years, - predicted V., - we will witness a powerful attack on the process'. He claimed that they would find new and effective drugs against cardiovascular diseases, asthma and even diseases associated with aging.
In 1948, Mr.. V. married Elizabeth Daphnia Peyg, and they had two daughters. According to his wife VA, he is constantly fascinated by the work, for his 'work - this is life'. However, during the rare periods of rest he enjoyed riding on water skis, and enjoys scuba diving in tropical waters.
. Active member of the British Pharmacological Society and the Society for the Study of drugs, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Medical Association
. In., . in addition to the Nobel Prize, . Bailey was awarded the medal of the Royal College of Physicians (1977), . Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1977), . Prize Ciba-Gage Drew Drew University (1980) and Dale Medals Society of Endocrinology (1981).,