GAYDUZEK (Gaidusek), D. Carleton( American pediatrician and virologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1976)
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Biography GAYDUZEK (Gaidusek), D. Carleton
genus. September 9, 1923
American pediatrician and virologist Daniel Carlton Gayduzek was born in Yonkers (NY). He was the eldest of two sons of a prosperous butcher Charles Gayduzeka, a Slovak by birth, emigrated to the United States, and Ottilie (Dobrotski) Gayduzek, the daughter of Hungarian immigrants. 'Because of the all-consuming passion of my mother's literature and folklore - recalls G., - my brother and I were brought up on Homer, Hesiod, Sophocles, Plutarch, and Virgil, and know them well before I learned how to read'. However, unlike his brother, who later became a poet and critic, Mr.. early began to show interest in mathematics and other exact sciences. As a child he could hold for hours at the Institute for the Study of Plant Boyce Thompson in Yonkers, where she worked as an entomologist his Aunt Irene Dobrotski. In his school years he spent there every summer, and this fascination led to the fact that he decided to study physics, biology and mathematics at the University of Rochester, which he entered in 1940, when 16-year old boys. After graduation in 1943. with a Bachelor of Science in Biophysics G. was accepted at Harvard Medical School, where three years later was awarded a medical degree.
Although Mr.. childhood was going to engage in medical research, however, he was carried away in Clinical Pediatrics. 'Children fascinated me - he admitted later - and their medical problems ... seemed more intractable than in adults'. These reasons prompted him to take the post of physician at Children's Hospital Boston and New York, after which he took a two-year internship in physical chemistry at the California Institute of Technology, where he worked with Linus C. Pauling and other researchers have had a huge impact in t.ch. In George. Beadle and Max Delbrц+ck. From 1949 to 1952. he was involved in virus research laboratory at Harvard, John F. Enders, as both a Fellow of the National Infantile Paralysis Foundation.
In 1952, Mr.. G. was drafted into the army and served two years in the Army Medical Center Walter Reed. The next two after discharge from the army, he held at the Pasteur Institute in Tehran (Iran), studying infectious diseases (such as rabies, plague), and scurvy. These studies led him to Australia, where in 1954. he studied virology with the Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research at the Walter and Eliza Hall, in Melbourne.
Studying child development and spread of disease among the indigenous population of Australia and New Guinea, D. met Vincent Zigasom, an employee of the Australian health service. Zigas said Mr.. handicap to the tribe - people living in highland areas of eastern New Guinea, and stopped in its development at the level of the Stone Age. Many members of this tribe suffered a fatal degenerative disease of the brain, which they called 'Kuru' and that no one and has never been studied. However Zigasom G. settled among the members of the tribe, learned their language and held them for about a year, having begun the study of an unusual disease.
In 1958, Mr.. G. became the head of the Laboratory of the National Institute of Nervous and Mental Disease, . related to the system of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), . in Bethesda (Maryland), . while continuing to study diseases 'kuru' in New Guinea and returning there at least at least once a year.,
. and Zigas initially believed that the 'Kuru' caused by a virus. But they could not identify causative agent or cause disease in animals using traditional virological methods. Since the disease seemed to have struck the members of one family, the scientists then came to the assumption of the complex genetic nature of the disease. However, in 1959. specialist in diseases of the nervous system in animals Hadlou William (who has studied diseases of the nervous tissue) from the laboratory 'Rocky Mountain' NIH, . analyzed the results of the study 'Kuru', . stressed, . that the symptoms of 'Kuru' similar to those of scrapie, . degenerative neurological disease of sheep,
. Scrapie was extremely prolonged periods of incubation period - usually years passed between the possible contamination of animals and the onset of first symptoms of the disease and its causative agent is known as a slow virus. Although this disease could be transmitted from one animal to another, scrapie virus was not isolated.
G. realized that the route of transmission 'Kuru' can also be explained by the presence of slow virus. In the Fore tribe practiced ritual cannibalism: After the death of a deceased relative, the surviving members of the family ate a sign of respect for his brain. This custom provides a direct route of transmission. In 1963, Mr.. G. began to experience in transplants of brain tissue samples from the dead 'Kuru' people anthropoid apes: two years later at the first of the experimental animals showing signs of disease. Initially Mr.. put experiments on chimpanzees, but then he was able to infect 'Kuru' also lower monkeys.
Those achievements have encouraged Mr.. and his colleagues to search for slow viruses as possible causes of other degenerative changes in the brain and spinal cord. By 1971, Mr.. yielded results indicating that the disease Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) can be transmitted to animals. This is a rare degenerative disease of the brain and spinal cord has symptoms similar to those of 'kuru', and distributed throughout the world.
Past T. research scrapie, 'Kuru' and CJD have shown that all diseases caused by slow viruses, have a number of other important common characteristics, in addition to a long incubation period. While conventional viral infection accompanied by, . usually, . severe immune response, . characterized by inflammation, . temperature rise, . antibody and interferon, . slow viruses, . seems, . not cause such reactions.,
. The most startling and controversial results of studies of slow viruses related to the structure
. Other known viruses consisted of a small amount of nucleic acid - deoxyribonucleic (DNA) or ribonucleic (RNA) - enclosed in a protein shell. The protein acts as a means of transporting the nucleic acid in the host cell, where it is incorporated into the cellular mechanism for the formation of new viruses. Slow viruses, however, can not be inactivated by medical means such as formaldehyde, ultraviolet radiation or high temperatures that destroy nucleic acids and denied most of the viruses of infectious properties. Viruses can be infinitely small, but still visible in the electron microscope. However, electron microscopic studies of diseases caused by slow viruses, failed to detect virus-like particles.
All these facts have convinced Mr.. and other scientists that slow viruses represent a fundamentally new pathogens: infectious protein. Minor protein bands detected in the slow virus infected the brain, is believed to cause disease and. It is unclear, however, what caused the deviations in the formation of abnormal shape or the number of cellular proteins: cellular disorders or unusual properties of the protein (eg, the ability to reproduce cells). Protein bands is strikingly similar to the structures, . formed in the brains of individuals, . Alzheimer's disease or senile dementia, . in which the changes in the brain causes the deterioration of mental activity, these diseases, . perhaps, . also due to slow virus or spontaneous defect, . effect of which is similar to that of slow viruses.,
. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1976. with Baruch C. Blumberg 'for the discovery of new mechanisms for the origin and spread of infectious diseases'. G. was awarded not for the, . had discovered the origin of 'Kuru', . but for, . that his research led 'to the recognition of a new category of human disease, . caused by unique infectious agents', . - Said in a welcome speech Erling Norby of the Karolinska Institute.,
. continues to work at NIH, alternating between slow laboratory studies of viruses with expeditions in Melanesia, Micronesia and New Guinea. A man of vast knowledge and interests, Mr.. is also known for his works on anthropology and child psychology. He was a bachelor, but he has a lot of foster children - 27 boys and one girl from the various Pacific populations in several languages, which he owns, in addition to Russian, German, French, Spanish and Slovak. He gave much of his collection of primitive art of the Peabody Museum in Salem (Mass.).
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Mr.. Mead Johnson awarded the American Academy of Pediatrics (1963). He is a member of the Society for Pediatric Research, American Pediatric Society, the National Academy of Sciences. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society and American Academy of Neurology. He is an honorary member of the Colombian, the Slovak and the Mexican Academy of Medicine.