Camillo Golgi( Italian histologist and pathologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1906)
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Biography Camillo Golgi
July 7, 1843, Mr.. - 21 January 1926
Italian histologist and pathologist Camillo Golgi was born in Corte. His father, Alessandro, a native Pavy, who was a physician, Golgi studied medicine at the University of Pavy led Oela Eusebio, who was the first among the Pavy scientists used a microscope for the systematic study of cellular structures. Received in 1865. medical degree, G. Pavy stayed to work in a psychiatric clinic, hospital of San Matteo. He was also engaged in studying the structure of the brain and nervous system in the laboratory microscopy, led by Giulio Bitstsotsero, one of his former university teachers.
Along with the development of microscopic techniques in the early XIX. rapidly growing scientific knowledge about the structure of cells of different tissues, and after the publication in 1850. Books Rudolf Virchow 'Cellular Pathology' ( "Cellular Pathology") microscopic studies have become more popular. However, when the first histologists tried using traditional instruments to study the nervous tissue, they could not draw a clear picture of the cellular structure. While the cells of different tissues are usually limited in size and have a certain set of options form, . nerve cells (called neurons) can be extremely long and thin: some of them, . example, . stretch from the toes to the spinal cord and much thinner than a hair,
. Nerve cells also intricately branched, and these diverging in all directions appendages are intertwined with other branches of the nerve cells. At that time, histology, who studied the nervous system with a microscope, found only a tangle of translucent cells and fibers.
The first investigations of Mr.. on microscopic neuroanatomy were published in the late 1860's. when he was still in Pavy. In 1872, Mr.. he became chief sanitary inspector of hospitals for chronic patients campus Abyategrasso. Since the new position did not involve intellectual pursuits, Mr.. continued to work with a microscope in his kitchen, refitting it under the laboratory and in the following year was able to invent a way of coloring the individual nerve cells.
. Microscopic examination should be primarily made swampy tissue slices
. This fabric is treated first dichromate salt, and then they harden and give the standard thin slices. 1. found that when submerged solidified sections of nerve tissue in a solution of nitric silver stained neurons in the black color, which allows them to distinguish good general background. Carefully controlling the processing of nervous tissue dichromate salt, D. made what he could as a few stained neurons and their fibers, and many cells at once.
In 1875, Mr.. G. returned to Pavia, a teacher of histology, and in 1879. began to lecture on anatomy at the University of Siena. Then he changed Bitstsotsero, his former teacher, office manager at the Department of General Pathology G. published several works in this area. He married the niece Bitstsotsero Donna Lina Aletta, the couple had no children, and they adopted her niece G.
Since the open G. staining with silver nitrate required the researcher skills and experience, he immediately became the subject of scientific sensation. But in the end, when in early 1880-s. method is widely spread among the neuroanatomy, knowledge about the structure of nerve cells began to grow rapidly. Sam G. classify different types of neurons and has made many important discoveries about the structure of individual cells and the nervous system as a whole.
Staining with silver nitrate to demonstrate the extraordinary complexity of neural connections. One neuron of the human brain, for example, can form compounds with more than 10 thousand. other nerve cells. Theoretically, using the method of G. can be traced all the fibers of a neuron, but in practice it is impossible to distinguish, interconnected cells, T. believed that his medications demonstrate the 'diffuse neural network', in which the fibers 'gradually losing their individuality and, being divided, become the finest threads'.
. Among the many neuroanatomy, apply the method of coloring on G, the most talented was Santiago Ramon y Cajal
. However, in contrast to G. he preferred 'a neural theory' postulated that each nerve cell and is structurally and functionally independent unit
Because the. synaptic cleft (the distance between nerve cells) were too small to be discerned in the optical microscope, Ramon y Cajal was unable to prove that the nerve fibers of different cells are isolated and separated.
. However, he had received images showed that the neural network composed of a complex nexus of individual nerve cells, whereas T
. was inclined to consider it the finest web of undifferentiated fibers. Ramon y Cajal studied their drugs at a high magnification and a closer, . than G., . relate to details, . although the latter was also an excellent observer and knew, . that it is sometimes difficult to tell, . whether this structure is the real detail of the structure of the cell or simply an artifact, . associated with fixation and coloring of the drug.,
. This well confirms the fate of the most famous opening G
. In 1898, Mr.. he noticed inside the nerve cells a thin network of interwoven filaments. Since then, the 'apparatus of G.' repeatedly observed in different cells for many years. Then 30 ... 40-ies., After the invention of the electron microscope - a hundred times more powerful than the best optical microscope, - 'G. apparatus' was regarded as an artificial structure that arises in the process of staining. However, with improved techniques of electron microscopy 'apparatus G.' was again found actually existing: nowadays it is believed that he is involved in the modification and secretion of proteins.
At the turn of the century G. and Ramon y Cajal argued among themselves about the nature of the structure of nerve cells, although they shared the Nobel Prize 1906. in Physiology or Medicine "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system '. G., the pioneer of modern neurological research, used the occasion to strike a blow at the doctrine of neural Ramon y Cajal, stating that the theory is independent of nerve cells is only 'one of the interpretations of the function of the nervous system'. In his Nobel lecture he gave a lot of evidence in favor of a closed, lattice-shaped structure, which establishes, in his view, the functional and anatomical continuity of the nerve cells. However, the popularity of the theory of the network gradually declined, particularly after the concept of structurally independent of the neurons was confirmed by neurophysiological studies, Charles C. Sherrington.
In addition to studying the nervous system, G. the period from 1885 to 1893. was also engaged in malaria. His ideas in this area have led to conflict between him and other researchers malaria Ronald Ross. G. enjoyed great popularity in Italy for his work on the nervous system, and malaria, despite the accompanying bitter debate. In studying malaria T. made a remarkable discovery: all the malaria parasites in the blood fall almost simultaneously and at regular intervals. Moreover, the time of division coincides with the beginning of an attack of fever. G. worked first with the four-day malaria, so called because the patient's temperature was rising every time on the fourth day, if we consider the first seizure onset. (Intervals between the attacks was 72 hours.) Through a series of blood T. showed that the new generation of pathogens fever (now known as Plasmodium malariae) appears every 72 hours.
In 1900, Mr.. G. was elected a senator and was appointed dean of the medical faculty and president of the University Pavy, continuing to remain a leading figure in the Italian neurobiology, and after his retirement in 1918. G. died in Pavia on Jan. 21, 1926