DALE, Henry Hallett (Dale Henry Hallett)( English physiologist and pharmacologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1936)
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Biography DALE, Henry Hallett (Dale Henry Hallett)
June 9, 1875, Mr.. Henry was educated at Tollington Park College in London and Cambridge Elementary School. Later D. explain the interest in natural sciences, which appeared in his early age, a fluke: he met a teacher who knew his subject and had the gift to pass his other passion. In 1894, becoming a scholar, he enrolled at Trinity College at Cambridge University. Tam D. listened to lectures in the famous physiologist. H. Gaskell, reflecting the latest achievements of science, and in 1898. passed the exams with distinction in the natural sciences, zoology and physiology. acquainted with two eminent physiologists ZH.N. Langley and X. K. Colleague and longtime friend D., T.R. Elliot, also worked in laboratories Cambridge, first proposeda hypothesis about chemical transfer pulses. In 1903, Mr.. he speculated that nerve impulses in sympathetic nervous system transmitted through adrenalin.
Sam D. while not participated in studying transmission nerve impulses. He until 1902 g. continued clinical learning in hospital of St.. Bartholomew in London, , . who discovered the hormone, . produced by the mucous membrane of duodenum, . elicited allocation insulin pancreas zhelezoj,
. D. studied the effects of this hormone called secretin, on pancreatic function. Working in the laboratory Starling, he came to know and have studied the experimental methods and problems of evaluation of the data. Shortly before the end of the term fellowships D. spent several months in the Paul Ehrlich Institute in Frankfurt (Germany).
D. rejected the advice of friends to continue research in the academy and in 1904. accepted the offer of cooperation from Henry Uilkama, the owner of the pharmaceutical firms 'Barrog Wilk & Company'. Eventually he became head of research in physiological research laboratories of the company in London. Wilk was hoping that D. 'will make something new in the pharmacology of ergot', pouch fungus growing in the ears of rye and other cereals.
The extract of ergot was used for many years to reduce the muscles of the uterus, often in the postpartum period. D. and George Barger, an organic chemist of the same laboratory, sought to identify the various components of ergot and determine their biological properties.
During the first years of work in the laboratories Uilkama whose leaders D. remained for ten years, he made two important discoveries, and both - by accident. In one experiment, he noticed that the ergot alkaloids compete with the effects of the hormone adrenaline on blood pressure. Typically, epinephrine causes a decrease of blood vessels and blood pressure rises. Ergot alkaloids conditioned the lifting 'effect of adrenaline', as this phenomenon is called the D. His results later formed the basis of a diagnostic test determining high blood pressure caused by tumors of the adrenal glands (phaeochromocytoma). D. also opened the pituitary hormone, oxytocin, which promotes uterine contractions and stimulates lactation.
Represented in 1907. Physiologists at the conference in Heidelberg (Germany), D. watched a demonstration of biological effects of extract of ergot. He came to the conclusion that the demonstrated effects were due to contamination of the extract, and on his return to London he started experiments to prove his hypothesis. By 1910, Mr.. he and Barger identified contaminant - histamine, biogenic amines, found in many animal and plant tissues. Four years later, D. published an extensive review of the physiology of acetylcholine, another substance which he isolated from ergot. He described the remarkable similarities between the biological effects of acetylcholine and electrical stimulation of parasympathetic nerve fibers.
In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, D. was appointed to the National Institute for Medical Research, which conducted standardized doses of certain drugs, including diphtheria antitoxin.
Summarizing his studies after the war, Dr.. showed that histamine is a chemical neurotransmitter 'reaction erythema' in the form of reduced congestion, formed in damaged tissue. He also suggested that histamine is a chemical mediator of anaphylactic shock, hypersensitivity reactions to certain foreign substances entering the body, such as at a sting Bees. Later it was shown that anaphylactic shock can be caused, besides histamine and other chemicals. In 1919, Mr.. and later, in 1927, D. gave lectures on the physiology of histamine in front of the Royal Society of England and the Royal Society of Physicians.
. Meanwhile, he continued to work on international standardization of medicines and antitoxin, which began during the First World War
. At meetings of the Committee on Health of the League of Nations, which convened in Copenhagen and Geneva in the 20's., D. made efforts to reach agreements between States on the standardization of doses and the quality of insulin, digitalis drugs, vitamins, extracts of thyroid, pituitary and diphtheria antitoxin.
In 1921, Mr.. Leah Otto showed that nerve impulses in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are transmitted through chemicals. Five years later, he proved that the transmitter (neurotransmitter) in the parasympathetic nervous system is acetylcholine. Between 1929 and 1936. D. and his colleagues from the National Institute for Medical Research, whose director D. was appointed in 1927, conducted a series of famous experiments with acetylcholine. They have demonstrated that acetylcholine is also a neurotransmitter in the nerve ganglia of the autonomic nervous system and in the terminal (terminal) the nerve endings of the nervous system arbitrary.
D. and Levy shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936. 'for the study of chemical transmission of nerve impulses'. On the basis of their research in the same year found an effective treatment for myasthenia gravis, the disease characterized by muscle weakness. In a speech at the award ceremony Goran Liliestrand of the Karolinska Institute said: 'You and your school is greatly enriched by the new concept of the latest discoveries ... Thanks to these discoveries ... Teaching as a science began to play a more influential role, and physiology and medicine were replenished with new knowledge '.
D. married his first cousin Ellen Harriet Hollet; they have a son and two daughters. From 1940 to 1945. D. was president of the Royal Society of London and from 1942 to 1946. - The permanent director of the Royal Institute of Great Britain. In 1942 ... 1947. D. - Head of the scientific advisory committee at the War Department. He was also a board member of the firm Uilkama medical research for many years and retired in 1960. According to the calculations of the DA, he made 18 trips to the United States and Canada, often to give lectures.
Died D. July 23, 1968, Mr.. Cambridge (England) at age 93.
D. - Winner of numerous international medals, including the Royal Medal and the Copley Medal of Royal Society of London. He was awarded numerous honorary degrees, in t.ch. Princeton. D. was a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American National Academy of Sciences.