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Delbr+ck (Delbruck), Max

( German-American molecular biologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1969)

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Biography Delbr+ck (Delbruck), Max
September 4, 1906, Mr.. - March 10, 1981
German-American molecular biologist Max Ludwig Henning Delbr+ck was born in Berlin and was the youngest of seven children of Hans Delbruck, a professor of history at Berlin University and the publisher of the journal 'German Yearbook'. His mother, Lina (Tverch) Delbr+ck, was the daughter of a professor of surgery at Leipzig, and granddaughter of the chemist Justus von Leybiga. Growing up in the environment of the middle bourgeoisie in the suburb of Grunwald, D. at an early age showed an interest in mathematics and astronomy.
After graduating from high school Grunwald in 1924. D. to. Wigner and Max Born who worked at faculty University. developed a mathematical proof of the chemical binding of lithium, in connection with what was in 1930. doctorate on fizike.
Scholarship has allowed D. during half years conduct studies in Bristol University in England. Tam he worked together with Sesil EFS. Powell and befriended with P.M.S. Blackett, P.A.M. Dirac and other scientists who shortly contributed substantive contribution in development of fiziki XX in. Job D., written in Bristol, largely theoretical, included two articles on quantum mekhanike. Subvention Rokfellerovskogo fund gave him opportunity during subsequent six months work university Copenhagen led Niels Bohr but following months - in Zurich University led Wolfgang Pauli. In Copenhagen D. established friendly relations not only with Bohr, but also with physicists George Gamow and Victor Veysskopfom. Teoriya complementarity Bohr thoroughly changed submission D. the biology and genetics. According to the concept of complementarity, wave and quantum theories express different aspects of the electromagnetic interaction, and consequently, different aspects of physical reality. Bohr's assumption that this physical phenomenon is also found in biological phenomena, strongly influenced the distance research Dmitry
After returning to Berlin in 1932. D. began working as an assistant Lise Meitner, who, together with Otto Hahn studied the effect of radiation in uranium neutrons. During these years, D. often met with physicists and biologists interested in the problems of genetics. Shortly before that Hermann Muller showed that ionizing radiation causes genetic mutations. This confirmed the view of scientists in Berlin that 'what genes have the same stability as the chemical nature of the molecules'. In the mid 30-ies. genes 'were used as algebraic units in the complex genetic studies and identified with the molecules, which are used in the analysis of the terminology of structural chemistry'. In his famous work, written in 1937, D. proposed to consider the genes as molecules, and 'replication of viruses - as a special form of primitive replication genes ... '. 'This point of view - he said - means a considerable simplification of the origin of many highly complex and specific molecules found in every body ... and necessary for the implementation of the most simple of metabolism '.
In 1937, Mr.. D. received the second grant the Rockefeller Foundation, which is used to study the biology and genetics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena. While Morgan and other geneticists studying Drosophila to determine the status of the chromosomes and their changes, D. interested in the genetics of bacteriophage, a kind of virus affecting the bacterial cells. Bacteriophages (like all viruses) are the simplest form of life and consist of in the center of the nucleic acid and the outer protein shell. At the present time there are three possible results of penetration of bacteriophage into the bacterial cell. It can affect the biochemical apparatus of the cell, replicate and cause destruction (lysis) of the cell, releasing new phage particles. D. In first work written in 1939, they regarded single cycle razmnozheniya phage in individual cells; work initiated new era in studies viruses.
Kogda nachalas second World war, D. remained in USA. Entering on post teacher Physics in University of Vanderbilt in Nashville (Tennessee), he continued study bacteriophages within subsequent seven years.
In 1940. at meeting American physiological society in Philadelphia D. met Salvador Luria, who conducted the study of bacteriophage in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in New York. Finding common interests in research, Dr.. and Luria began discussing the results of their experiments, using the correspondence and occasional meetings. Their findings showed that the DNA of the bacterial cells to undergo spontaneous mutations that affect the immune cells, or, in other words, its resistance to lysis of bacteriophage. These observations, published in 1943, became a model for analyzing and synthesizing the results of experimental genetic studies. Introducing the first proof of transmission of heredity in bacteria through the genes, their article refuted the prevailing view on the acquisition of genetic traits and initiated an era of bacterial genetics and molecular biology.
In 1943, Mr.. D. began to cooperate in the study of bacteriophages with Alfred Hershey, a microbiologist at the University of Washington (State of Louis). L., Hershey and Luria organized a group to study the phage, reaching a research plan. Through informal meetings with other researchers, members of this group sent their work to the study of seven bacteriophages, . that infect the intestinal bacillus Escherichia coli in the line, . in order to be able to compare the experimental data from different laboratories,
. Two years later, D. organized the first courses on phages in the laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. These courses, which considered the quantitative and statistical methods of research, conducted each summer until 1971, Mr.. and attracted the attention of biologists, geneticists and physicists from around the world. In 1947, Mr.. D. was appointed professor of biology at Caltech and two years later was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Working independently of each other, D. and Hershey in 1946. identified the opportunity to exchange genetic information (genes) between two different lines of bacteriophages, if the same bacterial cell infected with multiple bacteriophages. This phenomenon, which they called genetic recombination, was the first experimental evidence of recombination of DNA in viruses. Later, in 1952, Hershey and his colleague in March Chase confirmed that genes are composed of DNA. The next year, Francis Crick and James D. Watson determined the three-dimensional (spatial) structure of DNA, Watson presented the first data on the double helical structure of DNA in a letter to Dr.. In the 50's and 60's. Lab D

. Beadle was adopted by the head of biological research at Caltech. Starting work in 1947, he stayed there until his resignation in 1977 when his elected member reign institute. Last years the D. interested in the molecular biology of sensory perception and studied Phycomyces - simple mushroom, which responds to light and moving in his direction. During leave, taken at his own expense from 1961 to 1963, he worked as a visiting professor at the University of Cologne in western Germany, assisting in the establishment of the Institute of Genetics at the University.
In 1941, Mr.. D. married Marie Adelina Bruce, which he met at Caltech.
They born four children. Students and colleagues D. prized not only his organizational abilities but also wit and disregard rules etiquette. Sometimes, he arranged a party, inviting some guests to dress formally, while others appear in clothes for tennis, he appeared in clothes of different styles. D. showed great interest to philosophy music and literature and mourned greatly fact that he failed listen lecture devoted German poet Rainer Mariya Ril'ke Center poetry New York prevented illness: in 1978 g. y D. detected malignant tumor marrow which together with side phenomena chemotherapy restrict his aktivnost. He died in Pasadena 10 March 1981
Awards Prize D. include honorary degree universities Copenhagen, Chicago, Heidelberg, Harvard and Goettingen and also college Gustav Adolf and University South California. He received the Kimber Genetics Award of the National Academy of Sciences (1964), Award of Gregor Mendel Germanskoy Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina' (1967) and award-Louise Gross Horwitz Columbia University (1969). D. was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Academy of Denmark, the Royal Society of London and the French Academy of Sciences.


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Delbr+ck (Delbruck), Max, photo, biography Delbr+ck (Delbruck), Max  German-American molecular biologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1969, photo, biography
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