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DOSS (Dausset), Jean

( French biologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1980)

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Biography DOSS (Dausset), Jean
genus. October 19, 1916
French biologist Jean Baptiste Gabriel Joachim Jean Dausset was born in Toulouse and was the fourth child of Henry Pierre Julius Doss, a prosperous physician, specializing in radiology and rheumatism, and Elizabeth (Brulyard) Jean Dausset. The first years of his life he spent in Biarritz, and when the boy turned 11 years old, the family moved to Paris. There he was enrolled in the LycцLe Michelet and graduated with a degree in mathematics. Deciding to follow his father's footsteps and become a doctor, Dr.. entered medical school at the University of Paris in the late 30-ies. At the beginning of the Second World War, in 1939, D. was called up for medical service in the French army, and the next year, after the occupation of France, Germany, joined the Free French army in North Africa.
In Tunisia and in France, D. observed numerous blood transfusions, causing severe reactions in patients, even if the blood of the patient and donor blood belonged to the same group. Later, he described these adverse reactions, explaining their characteristics of blood donors in the plasma which are active anti-A antibody. He found that these antibodies appear after vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid, which contain soluble components, called substance A. Opening Karl Landsteiner major human blood groups made transfusion for the most part safe procedure in accordance blood groups of donor and recipient. Blood groups of people differ on the presence or absence of certain proteins in erythrocytes (antigens). The reaction between antibodies and antigens alien causes incompatibility of blood groups of donor and recipient. ABO system antigens Landsteiner explained the reasons for the majority of reactions of this type, although other blood antigens and antibodies are also involved in such reactions.
After discharge from military service in 1945. D. received a medical degree at the University of Paris. The following year he was appointed director of the laboratory of the French National Blood Transfusion Center. Having obtained leave in mid-1948, D. has immunohaematology scholarships to study at Harvard University, where he worked for a year. Returning to the Center of blood transfusion, he was in the late 40's and early 50-ies. studied various biological aspects of blood transfusion, focusing on the problem of pathological reactions.
. Some patients who have had multiple blood transfusion or received treatment for certain drugs, in addition to reactions associated with the erythrocytes, as described Landsteiner, developed reactions associated with leukocytes
. In 1952, Mr.. D. informed about the patient, the blood which detect antibodies to the antigen, detected in leukocytes of some other people, but not in leukocytes of the patient. In 1958, when D. joined the Research Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris, he opened the French have a number of options antigen on the surface of leukocytes. For descriptions of these antigens, he used the designation MAC (the initials of the three donors in the blood which he discovered these antigens). Anti-MAC antibody formed by blood transfusion MAS-negative recipients of the MAC-positive donors.
D. noted that blood transfusion represents a kind of organ transplant. At the beginning of XX century. was found that tissue transplanted from one person to another, almost always rejected, except in cases of close kinship of the donor and the recipient (especially the twin identity). D. suggested that the MAC-specific antigen is one of the factors by which the body can distinguish its own tissues from the tissues of another organism.
In 1962. D. appointed adyunktprofessorom of Medicine, University of Paris. The following year he became a leading biologist at the municipal hospital system in Paris and co-chair of the Institute for the Study of blood diseases.
After the opening of the D. options MAC antigen other researchers obtained data on the newly discovered antigens, demanding his explanation. At the working session, organized in 1965. Bernardo Amos to coordinate research histocompatibility (compatibility of different tissues to successfully implement transplantation), D. suggested that most of these antigens form part of a unified system in accordance with the theory proposed by George D. Snell and his colleagues in the 40-ies. Snell then proved that the rejection of tissue in mice is controlled by several physically linked genes, called major histocompatibility complex (MHC). D. suggested the existence of MHC in humans. He believed that transplantation antigens exist in great variety, not because many variant forms (alleles) are formed from one set of genes. It became clear that, as in mice, the human MHC consists of several genes, called group of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA). Since each gene is found in the form of multiple allelic forms, there may be millions of different combinations of antigens of HLA.
In 1967. D. and his colleague, Felix T. Rapoport began the study of skin transplants made between members of one family. Their results showed that the transplants between family members having the same type of HLA-antigens are more successful than in cases of differences such as HLA-antigens. These results enabled the D. encourage surgeons to pick up in the transplantation of organs from donors to the type of HLA-antigens. Among those not consisting of kinship, genetic differences (other than the identified AD) caused the rejection of the transplant, despite the selection of HLA system antigens. Some of these genetic differences were due to other genes of MHC. In 1967. Amos and his colleague Fritz Bach discovered another gene, called HLA-D (r. to. He was the fourth described gene HLA), are the human equivalent gene IR (immune response) in the MHC in mice. Baruch Benacerraf and other researchers have found that IR genes not only affect the survival of transplanted organs, but also play an important role in the body's ability to carry out immunological protection against certain diseases. In the early 70-ies. became apparent that the genes HLA-D is an important factor in the relationship between HLA types and certain diseases.
In 1967. D. investigated the interaction between HLA system and the emergence of some diseases (he was the first in this field), and, although these results were preliminary, his efforts have stimulated the work of other scientists. Based on these studies it was shown that certain types of HLA associated with an increased risk of certain diseases, such as joint damage, diabetes and autoimmune diseases. D. suggested that 'each haplotype HLA (group of alleles contributed by each parent) ... has its own configuration of genes, which determines the ability of specific immune response, favorable in some environments and negative in others'.
In 1968. D. appointed director of the French National Institute for Scientific Research. In the same year he began teaching Immunohematology - the study of antigens and antibodies of different components of blood - the University of Paris. In addition, since 1978, Mr.. he became professor of experimental medicine at the College de France. During the 70-ies. He also worked as a visiting professor at universities in New York, Brussels and Geneva.
Function of MHC gene products (antigens) was not installed until the end, but in the mid 70-ies. number of scientists, including Benacerraf showed that the interaction between different cells, particularly of the immune system, MHC restricted, ie. both interacting cells must bear the same MHC antigens on their surfaces. D. suggested that 'the phenomenon of restriction (restriction) is probably the most direct proof of the role of products of the complex HLA in immune response Rights'. Although yet to be much to learn about the structure of MHC genes and their activity in the body and ways to manage them for medical purposes, it became clear that the MHC is central in understanding the immune system as a whole.
D. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980. in Benacerraf and Snell 'for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions ". In a speech on the representation of George Klein of the Karolinska Institute, highlighted the importance of research of the three winners, . 'managed to make it, . At first it seemed that the area of basic experiments on inbred mice, . comprehensible only to a few, . into a coherent biological system, . which is essential for understanding the mechanisms of cell 'recognition', . immune responses and transplant rejection. ",
. D
. stayed on at university in Paris, where he continued his studies at the hospital of St. HLA. Louise.
In 1962. D. married Rose Mayoral Lopez, they have a son and daughter. His credo, which he has never changed: 'Vouloir pour valoir', which loosely translated means: 'they want to and will achieve. "
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Dr.. received an international award Gardner Fund (1977) and Wolff Prize in Medicine Israel Fund Wolff (1978). He - a member of the French Academy of Science and Medicine, and the Belgian Royal Academy of Medicine, an honorary member of the Yugoslav Academy of Arts and Sciences, an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and chevalier of Legion of Honor.


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