Kendall (Kendall), Edward( American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1950)
Comments for Kendall (Kendall), Edward
Biography Kendall (Kendall), Edward
March 8, 1886, Mr.. - May 4, 1972
American biochemist Edward Calvin Kendall was born in South Norwalk (Conn.), the son of Stanley George Kendall, a dentist, and Eva Frances Kendall (Abbott). Edward was the third of eight children Kendall. K. studied in local schools, and then moved to Stamford High School. Here he became interested in chemistry, as well as electricity, technology and mathematics.
In 1904. K. attended Columbia University, where he studied chemistry and conducted research work under the direction of the Sherman. In 1908, Mr.. He received a bachelor's degree and during the summer he worked as an assistant in the laboratory of the department of biochemistry at Columbia University and then enrolled in the graduate school of the Faculty. In his scientific work to. investigated amylase - an enzyme that is synthesized and secreted in the pancreas and a splitting in the small intestine starch to monosaccharides. Finding, . that the number of monosaccharides, . be produced from a given quantity of starch under the action of amylase, . depends on the concentration of salts in the intestine, . He published his results in the 'Journal of the American Chemical Society' ( 'Journal of the American Chemical Society'),
. In 1910,. He received his doctorate from Columbia University.
In the same year to. began working as a research chemist in the Detroit pharmaceutical company 'Park-Davis & Company'. Here he was asked to identify thyroid hormone from its extracts. Hearing that, at the same time with him on this topic will work another chemist, K. five months later resigned from the firm and took the proposal to establish a chemical laboratory in the hospital of St.. Luke's in New York. Here he continued his work on hormone release from extracts of the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland is located in front and on both sides of the trachea. This iron has been found in the last quarter of XIX century. Swiss surgeon Theodor Kocher, develops and identifies specific hormones. Subsequently it was discovered that there are two thyroid hormone - thyroxine and triiodothyronine affecting the absorption of oxygen and oxidative processes in the body. The first crude extracts of the thyroid gland for use in the clinic have been received by the end of XIX century. German biochemist Eugene Baumann.
In 1913, Mr.. K. made increasing the concentration of hormones in extracts of the thyroid gland 100 times. Therapeutic efficacy of these extracts was soon shown in patients with hypothyroidism (low thyroid function), and cretinism (delayed physical and mental development). However, in the hospital of St.. Luke these works were not immediately appreciated. K. wanted to work in a more academic institution, and in 1914. he joined the research laboratory, Mayo Clinic in Rochester (Minnesota).
In the Mayo Clinic to. continued study of the thyroid gland in an attempt to isolate and purify its bioactive hormones. That task, he decided purely by accident: Prepare an alcohol extract of the thyroid gland, he had forgotten it in the lab for a few hours, and when the alcohol has evaporated, left, as it turned out, the net thyroid hormone in crystalline form. Subsequently. proposed chemical formula of the hormone, but it turned out to be wrong. In addition, he and his staff of the Mayo Clinic identified glutathione - a carrier of oxygen in many redox reactions. Researchers have shown that glutathione is a tripeptide of the amino acids glutamine, glycine and cysteine.
In 1921, Mr.. K. became a professor of biochemistry at Mayo Clinic and began Recovery and identification of adrenal hormones. These glands are located above the upper pole of the kidneys and produce adrenaline into the bloodstream, or epinephrine, raise blood pressure and providing cardiotonic effect, increasing heart rate and accelerating the oxidation processes.
. The cells of the cortical layer of the adrenal glands that produce and emit in the blood corticosteroid hormones are regulated by the pituitary gland - in particular, the so-called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
. When blood levels of steroid hormones (especially hydrocortisone) decreases, the pituitary ACTH and allocates this hormone stimulates an enhanced production of the adrenal cortex steroids. Conversely, if the level of corticosteroids is high, then the allocation of pituitary ACTH is reduced and the development of corticosteroids in the adrenal glands is reduced.
. There are two types of hormones of the adrenal cortex: glucocorticoids (cortisone and hydrocortisone), affecting the exchange of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and mineralocorticoids involved in the regulation of water-salt metabolism
. Cortisone and hydrocortisone to suppress the biochemical reactions that are part of inflammatory processes in tissues resulting from injury or infection. By using steroids, except the adrenal cortex hormones, also belong to the male and female sex hormones and cholesterol.
. Lack of adrenal hormones can lead to Addison's disease, named after the English physician Thomas Addison first described the disease
. By 1920. found that surgical removal of adrenal glands in experimental animals can lead to condition like Addison's disease in humans. It was also shown that extracts of adrenal tissue can be to some extent compensate for lack of steroid hormones. Because there are many predecessors of adrenal hormones, their isolation and identification (especially of the adrenal cortex hormones) taken to. and other researchers have been difficult.
In 1934, Mr.. K. said that he was able to identify the crystalline form of the substance, which he considered one of the corticosteroids and called cortin. Then K. and his staff selected from the adrenal cortex of 22 different steroid hormones, most of which were biologically inactive precursors of biochemical. At the same time, they were able to allocate and 6 of active forms of hormones of the adrenal cortex, which are called by order of discovery, substances A, B, C, D, E and F. Subsequently it was found that the substance E (cortisone) and F (hydrocortisone) are, along with a dedicated in 1950, Mr.. aldosterone, the principal hormone of the adrenal cortex.
In the early 40-ies. K. was appointed a member of the Committee for the Study of the adrenal glands at the Council for Medical Research of the American management research and improvements. It was assumed that K. be able to organize the production of the substance E (cortisone) in large quantities. K. believed that cortisone can be a valuable drug for the treatment of various skin and eye diseases. He also discussed the possible use of cortisone for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (infectious and allergic diseases, characterized by systemic lesions of connective tissue) and his staff of the Mayo Clinic Philip Hench. Although cortisone was indeed effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, . its use (as well as ACTH) often cause unwanted side effects - in particular, . increased blood pressure and blood glucose levels and a specific form of obesity.,
. By the end of the Second World War to
. with his team studied 30 of 38 stages in the biosynthesis of cortisone. Assistance in studying the last stages of the biosynthesis has learned Lewis Sarett, and at the end of 1945. in the laboratory to. cortisone was first synthesized in small quantities. Two years later, after developing a simpler method of synthesis of cortisone, it became possible to mass production. By that time, biochemists from Yale and the University of California isolated from extracts of pituitary ACTH.
In 1950, Mr.. K. together with Tadeusz Reichstein and Hench were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for "discoveries concerning hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects'. In his Nobel lecture to. said: 'There is no doubt that the use of this hormone [cortisone] will be wider and wider. He has a unique effect in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism, asthma and hay fever, as well as in the treatment of other allergic diseases'. Their share of premiums. shared with several employees involved in work on the synthesis of cortisone.
In 1950, Mr.. K. resigned from the Mayo Clinic for retirement and became a consulting professor at Princeton University, where he continued his research.
In 1915, Mr.. K. married Rebecca Kennedy. In the family they had three sons and a daughter. The last years of life to. were marred by mental illness of his wife, the death of one of the sons of cancer and the suicide of his second son. In 1972. during a meeting at the K. suffered a heart attack, and three days later he died of a myocardial infarction.
To. was awarded the John Scott, Mr.. Philadelphia (1921), . Charles Frederick Chandler medal of Columbia University (1925), . Lasker Award of the American Public Health Association (1949), . Prize for Medicine Foundation Passau Passau (1950) and Kober medal of the Association of American Physicians (1952),
. He was awarded honorary degrees from Yale University, the University of Cincinnati, Columbia University and other research institutions. He was a member of the American Society of Physiologists, . Association of American Physicians, . American Chemical Society, . American Society of Experimental Pathology, . American Association for the Advancement of Science, . National Academy of Sciences, . American Philosophical Society, . Biochemical Society and the American Society Garveevskogo,