Palade (Palade), George E.( The American biologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1974)
Comments for Palade (Palade), George E.
Biography Palade (Palade), George E.
genus. November 19, 1912
American biologist George Emil Palade was born in Iasi (Romania), the family of Professor of Philosophy University of Jassy Emil Palade and Constance (Cantemir) Palade, elementary school teacher. He received his primary education at the Lyceum in Hasdu Byuzane and in 1930. enrolled in medical school at the University of Bucharest. Great influence on him had worked at the University Professor of Biochemistry Andre Boyvin and Professor of Anatomy Francis Rayner, who offered him the post of assistant-researcher. Worked for 6 years in a clinic and a thesis on mikroanatomii kidneys in a number of marine mammals, P. in 1940. received a medical degree. After graduating from medical school he became an assistant in internal medicine at the University of Bucharest. During the Second World War he served in the Romanian army in the post, which allowed him to continue to work at the University. In 1945, Mr.. with Grigor Pope, successor Rayner, P. obtained a place assistant researcher in the Biology Laboratory of the University of New York. Visiting one seminar Albert Claude, P. presented to him, and he invited him to his research group at Rockefeller Institute (now - Rockefeller University), offered in 1946. a visiting researcher. After the Communists came to power in Romania P. decided to stay in the United States.
Claude first developed the techniques of electron microscopy and cell fractionation, which is a division of the components of the cell using an ultracentrifuge. In this case the cells initially in a blender to break up the particles of the same size, then placed in test tubes and spin in a centrifuge. Components of cells are separated according to size, shape and density. After this procedure, each cell fraction can be individually isolated and studied by biochemical methods or under the electron microscope.
That Claude introduced the use of electron microscopy in the study of cells. Microsoft, designed in 1933. Ernst Ruska, electron beam penetrates the object. This allows you to see very small components of cells and even molecules that are not visible in optical microscope. At the Rockefeller Institute for P. engaged in improving the methods used to prepare tissue for cell fractionation and save it for electron microscopy.
After the departure of Claude from the Institute in 1949. P. independently engaged in research supported by the Director, Herbert C. Gasser. In the next four years, P. made the first important discoveries in cell biology that go beyond the methodological techniques. Using new methods of cell fractionation and electron microscopy, P. and his colleagues described the ultrastructural features of cells and biochemical functions of structures (or organelles) inside it: the mitochondria, . endoplasmic reticulum (network), . ribosomes and Golgi apparatus (named after the Italian histologist Camillo Goldzhi),
. Mitochondria are the organelles, . which energy is produced, . required cell; endoplasmic reticulum - a system of tubular structures, . involved in metabolic processes, . which provide transport of substances from the environment in the cytoplasm and between the individual intracellular structures, the ribosomes are intracellular particles, . composed of protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA), Golgi complex - organoid cell, . responsible for the formation of products of its life and the synthesis of proteid,
. These structures are located in the cytoplasm, the living material of cells, not belonging to the nucleus (the cell containing the chromosomes).
In 1952, Mr.. P. became an American citizen, a year later he became a member of the Association of Scientists Rockefeller Institute, and in 1956. - A full professor of cell biology. By this time he formed a team of laboratory and has developed experimental methods to study the synthesis of proteins in living cells, supporting both the life of the cell itself and the life of the whole organism. For an experimental model of P. chose exocrine pancreatic cells of guinea pig. These cells synthesize and secrete digestive enzymes (proteins that increase the rate of chemical reactions) in the gastrointestinal tract, where they participate in the process of digestion.
In subsequent years, the group P. explored ways of protein synthesis and secretion of enzymes in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. Was to clarify the following sequence of events: first, proteins and enzymes secreted by going to the ribosomes, . attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, . then they are separated from other structures in the lumen of tubular spaces of the endoplasmic reticulum, these isolated proteins are transported to the vacuoles (small cavities) in the cytoplasm of cells through a process, . which, . Scientists believe, . needs in the delivery of energy from mitochondria,
. After this, proteins are concentrated in the particles, called mature secretory granules, or zimogenovymi granules and these granules contain secretory proteins and enzymes, are temporarily stored in a cage, preparing to exit from it. And finally, stored in mature granule proteins and enzymes out of cells in the excretory ducts of the pancreas and reach the intestine, where they participate in the digestion of various substances.
Finished work on the synthesis of protein, P. left the Rockefeller Institute in 1973. became a professor of cell biology at Yale University. By this time he became interested in another central question of biology - the synthesis of cellular and intracellular membranes, capsules surrounding the very cells and organelles inside. In the early 50-ies. in biology, the prevailing theory of cellular transport (the movement of substances through cell membranes), which is based on an idea of the pores. According to this theory, ions and large molecules penetrate into the cell through the pores of the membrane (plasmolemma). Working with Marilyn Gist Ferkyuhar, research assistant laboratory Rockefeller Institute, P. suggested that instead of the theory then - the theory of vesicular. These electronic micrographs showed that the ions and large molecules from the extracellular space, probably absorbed by vesicles (blisters), which is periodically extracted from the cell membrane.
In 1974. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to AP, Claude and Christian de Dyuvu 'for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cells'. This was possible largely thanks to that described P. protein synthesis. In his Nobel lecture P. said that the 'functional analysis of exocrine pancreatic cells has provided us with the successive stages of the secretory process. "
In 1940. P. married Irina Malakse; they had a son and daughter. A year after the death of his first wife in 1969. P. married Marilyn Gist Ferkyuhar. In his free time in the laboratory P. liked to read historical literature, especially in Roman history.
P. Passau has received a prize for medical research Foundation Passau (1964), the Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1966), prize T. Daketta Jones, Helen Hay Whitney Foundation (1966) and a special prize Gardner Fund (1967). He was awarded an honorary prize of the University of New York. P. was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the International Society of Cell Biology. In 1955, Mr.. He founded the Journal of Cell Biology ( 'Journal of Cell Biology'), becoming its editor.