Szent-GyöTrgyi Albert( American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1937)
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Biography Szent-GyöTrgyi Albert
September 16, 1893, Mr.. - October 22, 1986
American biochemist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Neygirapolt, a Hungarian by birth, was born in Budapest, the son of Nicolas Saint-Gyorgyi, a wealthy landowner, and Josephine Szent-GyöTrgyi, nee Lenhosesek. In house, . which brought Sotsial, . often the music played and were intelligent conversation and later he said: 'I realized, , . that intellectual assets are worth, . to strive for them, artistic and scientific creation - the highest meaning of human existence ',
. As a child, AS-D. malosposobnym considered a child, but suddenly was interested in reading in adolescence, which enabled him to finish high school with the highest grades.
In 1911, Mr.. S.-D. entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Budapest, . where he began to research work in the lab of his uncle, . related both to the study of microscopic anatomy of the epithelial cells of the anal canal, . and vitreous eye,
. In the third year, he published several articles on the histology. Since the beginning of World War S.-D. was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army, fought for three years in Russian and Italian fronts, and was awarded a silver medal "For Valor '. 'Not wishing to take part in a brutal and senseless slaughter ", he shot himself in the hand and thus was able to return home. S.-D. continued his studies in 1917. received a medical degree. He was sent for distribution to the army bacteriological laboratory, where the Italian prisoners of experiments. That prompted an outcry from scientists, because of what he was exiled to the north of Italy, in the marshy area, where there was a real danger to die, ill tropical malaria. But he survived.
After the war, Dr. S.. became an assistant professor of pharmacology at the University of Pozoni (now - Bratislava, Czechoslovakia). Several months later the city was handed over to Czechoslovakia under the Versailles Peace Treaty. S.-D. returned to Budapest, taking the lives of laboratory equipment. After the Communists came to power, headed by Bela Kun S.-D. emigrated and for ten years conducted research in various European countries. So, he studied electrophysiology in Prague, the chemistry of acids and bases - in Berlin, Physical Chemistry - the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Hamburg. After two years of work at the Department of Pharmacology, University of Leiden in the Netherlands, he became a Fellow of the University of Groningen, where he began to study the mechanisms of biological oxidation.
By the 20 th years. formed the first representation of the general model of cellular metabolism of carbohydrates, oxidation and exchange of energy in the cell. Biochemists have already managed to find, . that glucose and its storage form - glycogen - are destroyed or metabolized by two possible ways: through anaerobic (without oxygen), . which leads to the formation of lactic acid, . or lactate, . and aerobic infections (in the presence of oxygen), . or glycolysis, . which glucose is transformed into pyruvic acid, . or pyruvate, . and then to carbon dioxide and water,
. Otto Warburg believed that an essential stage of biological oxidation is a biochemical activation (and appendix) of oxygen, while Heinrich Wieland believed that the activation (and removal) of hydrogen is more important. S.-D. failed to demonstrate that the activation of both oxygen and hydrogen necessary for the reactions of cellular oxidation. He also discovered the enzymes of dicarboxylic acids - succinic and citric acid - which catalyze the oxidative reaction intermediate during the conversion of pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water. This catalytic system is associated with intracellular structures, later identified as mitochondria (small granules or rod-shaped structures in the cytoplasm of cells), and the energy centers of cells. Discovery of the Social-Democrats, made in Groningen in the 30's. Laid the groundwork for future research Hans Krebs biochemical reactions, now known as the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle.
. In the analysis of biological oxidation in plant cells, Dr. S.
. found a strong reductant, or a donor, hydrogen. While working at Cambridge University in the laboratory physiologist Frederick Goulenda Hopkins, S.-D. received from oranges, lemons, cabbages, and adrenal glands of animals and isolated crystals of a reducing substance. Since the substance contained six carbon atoms, and referred to the acid, he named his geksuronovoy acid. For this work, Cambridge University awarded him a Ph.D. in 1927. He stayed in Cambridge for three years, then worked in the U.S., the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, where he highlighted the large number geksuronovoy acid from the adrenal glands of animals. He received twenty-five grams of acid geksuronovoy he returned to Cambridge, where with the help of a chemist Walter H. Haworth determines its complete chemical structure.
Return to Hungary in 1930. S.-D. was appointed professor of medical chemistry at the University of Szeged, and five years later - a professor of organic chemistry. During the experiments, which he and his colleagues conducted, failed to prove that geksuronovaya acid, renamed Saint-D. and Haworth in ascorbic identical to vitamin C. Lack of vitamin C in the diet causes people diseases such as scurvy (scurvy), hence the name of ascorbic acid. Scurvy, . disease, . related to food and is characterized by weakness, . anemia, . looseness gums and tendency to bleeding of the capillaries of the skin and mucous membranes, . for centuries been typical for seafarers, . Eat, . devoid of ascorbic acid, . or vitamin C,
. Known today as Barlow's disease, scurvy (scurvy) is very rare.
When stocks geksuronovoy acid for research dried up, SA-D. found that paprika or Hungarian paprika, contains large amounts of ascorbic acid. 'Once we have for dinner was a red pepper, - he later recalled. - I had no desire to eat it, and I thought to leave. Suddenly I had an idea that this is the only plant that I have never studied. I took it to the lab, and by the middle of the night already knew that this is a real treasure chest of vitamin C, which contains up to 2 milligrams of the vitamin per 1 gram of substance '. A few weeks AS-D. received from the pepper kilograms of crystalline vitamin C.
At the University of Szeged AS-D. also found, . that flavonoids, . plant pigments, . present in crude preparations of ascorbic acid, . reduce capillary fragility, . which leads to bleeding in patients with hemorrhagic vasculitis (disease, . characterized by a change in color of skin, . vomiting, . diarrhea, . abdominal distention and renal colic),
. He named these substances vitamin R.
S.-D. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937. 'for his discoveries in the field of biological oxidation processes related in particular to the study of vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid'. In a speech at the presentation Inar Hammarsten of the Karolinska Institute drew attention to the fact that the opening of the SA-D. played an important role 'for the first of the sequence of oxidative process'. In his Nobel lecture, Dr. C.. said that with the work Vilenda, initiating research in this area, it became clear that the human body is inherent in only one source of energy - hydrogen (rather than carbon, and carbon dioxide, as suggested above).
. A year after receiving the Nobel Prize-D S.
. was appointed professor at the University of Liege (Belgium). In the late 30-ies. he became interested in biochemistry of muscle cells. S.-D. and his colleagues have identified actin, a protein of muscle tissue, which forms together with another protein, myosin, actomyosin complex. Heated extract of muscle tissue, being added to actomyosin, causing reduction of artificial muscle fibers. S.-D. stubbornly continued to take phosphate bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), energy-rich, the reason for the reduction of actomyosin.
During the Second World War S.-D. remained in Hungary, participated in the underground struggle. Shortly before the end of the war, he persecuted by the Nazis, managed for one night with the support of the King to get Swedish citizenship and a few hours before the arrival of the Gestapo to leave Hungary and go over to Sweden via a diplomatic mission. After the war, disillusioned by the Soviet occupation of Hungary and demoralized by the failure of his political activities as a member of the Hungarian parliament, he in 1947. emigrated to the United States and in 1955. received American citizenship. In the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole (Mass.) SS-D. organized by the Institute for the Study of muscles, where he spent studying the regulation of the growth of cancer cells, the electrophysiological properties of biological membranes and hormone function of the thymus.
In 1917, Mr.. S.-D. married Cornelia Demeny, had a daughter. After his wife died of cancer he had in 1942. married Martha Barbiro, and in 1975. - By Marcia Houston. Openly against expanded U.S. war in Vietnam, S.-D. participated in the movement for nuclear disarmament.
Umer S.-D. at his home in Woods Hole on Oct. 22, 1986, Mr.. from chronic renal failure.
Among the awards S.-D. - Cameron Prize, University of Edinburgh (1946) and the Albert Lasker Award of the American Heart Association (1954). He was a member of the Budapest Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of the USA, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and National Academy of Budapest. He was awarded honorary titles of Lausanne, Padua, Paris, Bordeaux, Cambridge, Oxford and Braun.