Temin (Temin), Howard M.( The American virologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1975)
Comments for Temin (Temin), Howard M.
Biography Temin (Temin), Howard M.
genus. December 10, 1934
American virologist Howard Martin Temin was born in Philadelphia and was the second of three sons of Henry Chomin, judges, and Annette (Lehman) Temin, who took an active part in social activities. While studying in high school in Philadelphia, T. within a few years spent summer holidays at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor (Maine), where he studied under the program for gifted children. It deepened his interest in biological research and allowed us to obtain practical skills in conducting laboratory experiments.
In 1951, Mr.. T. entered Svortmor College, where he studied biology with a special program. Summer 1953. He worked at the Institute of Cancer Research in Philadelphia. After receiving the title of Bachelor of Science in biology in 1955. He returned to the Jackson Laboratory, where he met with David Baltimore, while a student at school. That familiarity helped the transition T. the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, where he continued his work on experimental embryology, but eighteen months later switched to a virology laboratory animals Renato Dulbecco. As part of his doctoral dissertation on Rous sarcoma virus (filterable virus) detected by Peyton Rous, a sarcoma in chickens breed Plymouth), T. in collaboration with Harry Rubin, in charge of research after receiving his doctorate, has developed a quantitative method for determining the growth of viruses.
In 1959, becoming a Doctor of Philosophy, T. next year he studied Rous sarcoma virus from the California Institute of Technology. His investigations suggest that some viruses alter the genetic information encoded in the cells that they attack. The following year, T. was appointed assistant professor of oncology at the University of Wisconsin, where he worked in the laboratory Mac-Ardley medical school.
Using a quantitative method developed by them in the study of Rous sarcoma virus, T. began to identify differences between normal and tumor cells and developed his early hypothesis to include other RNA-containing viruses of animals. According to this hypothesis, called the proviral, protein shell of some viruses contain an enzyme that catalyzes, or facilitates the copying of viral genes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of a host cell.
. Proof proviral hypothesis, however, depended on the evidence of the existence of such enzyme
. Moreover, many scientists have greeted it with some hostility, t. to. it is contrary to widely held and encourages submission, if genetic information is transmitted only from DNA to RNA and proteins, and never - in the opposite direction. Aware of this theory, T. accumulating experimental evidence in support of the theory of proviral. In 1970. He and David Baltimore, who also joined the work of the Institute of Technology, independently isolated the enzyme that copies the viral RNA genes in cellular DNA. They called it the RNA-directed DNA polymerase, and published their results in June 1970. in the British science journal 'Neicho' ( 'Nature'). At present, an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase, t. to. in contrast to earlier genetic theories, he transcribes (withdraws) the genetic information from DNA and RNA. Viruses possessing reverse transcriptase activity and exists as a provirus into the DNA of animal cells, called retroviruses. They cause various diseases, including AIDS, certain forms of cancer and hepatitis.
T. also investigated the possibility of transforming a normal cell into a tumor under the influence of genetic information provirus. He showed that the gene provirus with its activation can induce the synthesis of certain proteins in the cell opuholeprodutsiruyuschih. These abnormal proteins and then blocked the transmission of signals limiting cell growth, thus allowing transformed cells to grow uncontrollably. A year after the publication of their results on the study of viruses T. became a professor of social researchers Alumni University of Wisconsin.
T. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975. from Baltimore and Renato Dulbecco 'for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material of cells'. Peter Reichardt of the Karolinska Institute in a speech when giving the award said: 'This discovery not only an outstanding new chapter in cancer research, but it has ... far-reaching biological consequences'. For example, other researchers said Reichardt, found that "many normal cells ... contain copies of viral RNA is closely associated with RNA tumor viruses. "
In his Nobel lecture T. stated that the replication of RNA tumor viruses' is not sufficient for the formation of cancer by RNA tumor virus, noting, however, that in his opinion, 'viruses are models of the processes involved in the etiology of human cancer'. He believed that cancer is caused predominantly by 'other types of carcinogens, such as chemical components and contained in cigarette smoke' that 'may alter specific target in the DNA of cells in cancer genes'.
. Receiving the Nobel Prize, T
. continued to work in the laboratory studies of cancer Mak-Ardley University of Wisconsin, where in 1980 he. was elected Professor of Oncology and in 1982. - Professor of Biology. Member of the Editorial Board of journals in virology, cell physiology and the 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences' ( 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences', USA), he has authored or co-authored over 170 articles and several books.
In 1962. T. married on rails Greenberg, who worked in the field of population genetics, and they had two daughters.
Among the awards T. - Prize of the American Society Steele Molecular Biology of the National Academy of Sciences (1972), . Prize in enzyme chemistry American Chemical Society (1973), . Prize for the teaching of the American Cancer Research Association (1974), . International Award Gardner Fund (1974), . Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1974) and the prize for research Lila Gruber American Academy of Dermatology (1981),
. In addition to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, T. - Member of the American Philosophical Society, . American Society of Microbiologists, . American Cancer Research Association and the American Society of virologic, . holds honorary degrees Svortmor College and Medical College in New York.,