Whipple (Whipple), George H.( The American physician and pathologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934)
Comments for Whipple (Whipple), George H.
Biography Whipple (Whipple), George H.
August 28, 1878, Mr.. - February 1, 1976
American physician and pathologist George Hoyt Whipple was born in Ashland (New Hampshire), the son of Francesca (Hoyt) Asle Whipple and Whipple, GP. Living in the countryside, the boy all his life loved hunting, fishing and travel. While still a student at a local secondary school,. was convinced that becoming a doctor. That confidence has lived there all those years while he attended high school in Tilton, where each day went by train. At Phillips Academy Andover, he took courses in biology, chemistry and physics, in preparation for entrance to Yale University.
Entered university, I. studied various scientific disciplines and participated in student competitions in rowing. He graduated from University with a Bachelor of Arts in 1900. To improve medical knowledge have. within a year he studied mathematics and science at the Military Academy in Ossininge Holbrook (New York), and in his spare time - 'Anatomy' Gray. In 1901, two years after admission to medical school at Johns Hopkins, he had received a paid teacher, which allowed him to continue scientific studies.
After his assignment in 1905. medical degree U. became an assistant pathology in medical school at Johns Hopkins, and two years later went to Panama to study tropical diseases.
On his return from Panama. U. began working with John Sperry, who has studied the restorative processes in the liver cells, causing damage to the liver of dogs with chloroform. Thus dogs developed jaundice, a condition in which the skin and sclera become icteric coloration due to an excess of bile, produced by the liver and involved in the digestion. The source of bile is occurring in the normal breakdown of hemoglobin, the respiratory pigment of red blood cells containing iron.
Y. focused his research on the issue of the relationship between the cells of the liver, bile formation and disintegration of hemoglobin. At the time, believed that the bile pigments are formed exclusively from the hemoglobin of red blood cells and the formation of bile pigments occurs only in the liver. U. however, doubted that the liver is the only organ synthesizing bile. In 1911, visiting the laboratory of Hans Meyer in Vienna, Y. mastered the technique of applying ECKA fistula, through which blood is shunted from the intestine and passes, bypassing the liver. Combining the method ECKA with ligation of the hepatic artery, Y. and a talented medical student in the Charles. Hooper could turn off the liver from the circulatory system. They watched as the introduction of hemoglobin into the bloodstream within 1 or 2 hours turned into the bile pigments. Even with the cessation of blood flow in the spleen and intestine transformation of hemoglobin into bile pigments are clearly due to its dissolution in the bloodstream. Thus, Y. and Hooper showed that the experimental conditions, formation of bile pigments without the involvement of the liver, but in the living conditions of the liver plays a major role in their elaboration.
In 1914, Mr.. U. Hooper became president of the Society for Medical Research, University of California at San Francisco. Continuing to study there with biliary fistulas, he realized the need to clarify the process of formation of hemoglobin in order to realize its transformation into bile pigments. In 1917 ... 1918. U., Hooper, Charles and Freda Robbins, causing anemia in dogs by bloodletting noticed a significant increase in hemoglobin in the blood after feeding the animal liver.
In 1920, Mr.. U. became dean of the School of Medicine, University of California, and a year later was appointed dean of the new medical complex at the University of Rochester (New York). Upon arrival in Rochester U., however, found that the complex is only projected, and therefore he had to participate in the creation of a school in the early stages of. However I. in Rochester, went to his colleague, Robbins and a group of scientists involved in the study of anemia in dogs. In the period from 1923 to 1925. Robbins directed the studies of hemoglobin, and Y. perform administrative duties. Researchers have so perfected the technique of bleeding dogs that could cause them long-term anemia. Using this technique, they drove the hemoglobin up to 1 / 3 of the rules and continue to support the anemia. Skarmlivaya dogs different products in certain portions, they can assess the quantitative rise in hemoglobin. After opening in 1925. new medical schools have. began to devote more time to experiments. The following year, together with 'Eli Lilly' was received liver extract for the treatment of anemia in humans. Although the patent belonged to the company, W., test, and standizirovavshy extract, used a royalty from its sale to fund additional research.
Employment. with anemizirovannymi dogs formed the basis for successful application in 1926. George Minot and William R. Murphy's liver for treatment of patients with pernicious anemia, which was then an incurable disease. (When a colleague, W., Hooper, in 1918. pernicious anemia patients given liver, he saw improvement in their condition, but he had to interrupt the experiment after the other clinicians ridiculed him.)
. "For research in the treatment of liver patients with anemia 'W., Minot and Murphy split in 1934
. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. 'This new method, - said in a speech at the presentation of Israel Holmgrin of the Karolinska Institute - has saved thousands of lives and in the future prevent the death of many more people'.
. In pernicious anemia, in contrast to its other forms, disturbed the formation of new red blood cells
. The reasons for this at the time were unknown. In 1934, Mr.. U. suggested that this factor is probably located in the stroma, the protein based on erythrocyte. After 14 years, other researchers have identified it as vitamin B12, still later, it was shown that vitamin B12 is necessary for the proper location of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) coding for the structure of erythrocytes.
In one of his works have. considered the impact on the state of the liver plasma. Using the amino acids labeled with radioactive substances, he discovered that the liver is constantly producing proteins of plasma, which pass from the blood into the tissues of the human. Used in the experiments and radioactive isotopes of iron to study the metabolism of hemoglobin and radioactive isotopes of cobalt to identify the role of vitamin B12 in the formation of red blood cells. In addition, research interests have. distributed for thalassemia, a rare form of anemia, the amazing inhabitants of the Mediterranean. He was also the first researcher, identified a rare disease of the intestine, at which the deposition of lipids in the mucosa of the small intestine (later called Whipple's disease).
Joining in 1952. position of dean of the University of Rochester School of Medicine, where it was prepared more than 12 thousand. graduates in various fields, U. continued to work in a school in another capacity. In 1963, Mr.. U. founded the library fund, which amounted to 750 thousand. dollars, making a general university fund, the chief manager of which it was increased to 1, 5 million. dollars.
In 1914, Mr.. U. married Catherine Ball Waring, music teacher. They had a son and daughter. Died in. in Rochester on Feb. 1, 1976, Mr.. in the hospital, which he once helped build.
Y. was awarded the Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians (1939), Medal Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko, National Academy of Sciences (1962) and the medal "For Distinguished Service ', which was handed to him by President John F. Kennedy (1963). From 1927 to 1943. He is a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, and from 1936 to 1953. - Member of the Board of Directors Council of Scientific Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. In 1953 ... 1960. it - the vice-director of the Board of Trustees. U. was a member of the American Society of Pathologists and Bacteriologists, American Society of Experimental Pathology. He was awarded honorary degrees from California and Yale University, Colgate University, Tula, and many institutions.