BUTLER (Butler), Nicholas Myurrey( American teacher Nobel Peace Prize, 1931)
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Biography BUTLER (Butler), Nicholas Myurrey
April 2, 1862, Mr.. - December 7, 1947
The American educator Nicholas Myurrey Butler was born in g. Elizabeth (New Jersey), he was the eldest of five children of textile industrialist, Henry Butler and Mary Dzhoes Myurrey. At the end of the private and public schools in Paterson (New Jersey) B. in 1878. enrolled at Columbia College to study law. However, under the influence of Frederick A.P. Barnard, he decided to devote himself to pedagogy. After graduating from college with honors in 1882, B. continued to study philosophy at Columbia, where he received a master's degree in 1883 and his Ph.D. in 1884. Designated scholarship enabled him to spend a year at universities in Berlin and Paris.
In 1885, Mr.. B. returned to Colombia, an associate professor of philosophy. Two years later, still teaching, he became president of the Association of training - a philanthropic organization, which patronized apprenticeship in public schools. Under the direction of B. in 1889. organization opened a New York College of Teacher Training in 1892. renamed Teachers College. In 1901, Mr.. between teaching and Columbia College were established creative communications.
In 1890, Mr.. B. became a professor of philosophy, ethics and psychology at Columbia College. At the same Board of Trustees approved his plan for an in-depth study of science and philosophy. Pedagogy was included in the number of university academic disciplines.
In those years, B. sought to establish a centralized administration of school education, to organize training pedagogy as a science. As a member of the Council for Public Education in New Jersey in 1887 ... 1895. He led the Board of Education. Through the efforts of B. Association of Teachers was transferred to public authorities in the curriculum include the teaching of crafts.
After moving to New York in 1894, B. managed to convince the state legislature to abolish school boards of trustees, who, in his opinion, were purely political significance. Organizational skills B. helped him to unify the education system in the State of New York and set up a commission on national education. In accordance with the adopted in 1897. Greater New York charter in the city appeared as Managing schools.
In 1890, Mr.. B. began to publish 'Educational Review', the scientific journal for dissemination of advanced educational views. As a member of the National educational association and its leader in 1894 ... 1895. B. participated in the creation of 'the Ten', which was intended to bring together educators to study the problems of secondary and higher education, and the committee on admissions to college. In 1900, Mr.. B. played a crucial role in establishing the Council for the entrance examinations to colleges, being its first secretary, and from 1901 to 1914. - Chairman.
In 1901, Mr.. President of Columbia College, resigned and B. was appointed as his responsibilities. The following year he was formally inaugurated as the 12 th president of the institution. B. held that post until 1945, all this time he contributed to the deepening of specialization and improve post-graduate, in college journalism schools were opened and dentists, expanded curriculum. Growing cultural influence and scientific reputation of the college brought in his state of scholars such as philosopher John Dewey, historian Charles Beard, the zoologist Thomas Hunt Morgan. By 1914, largely thanks to Boris, Colombia has become one of the largest university centers of the world.
Growing need for administrative control has awakened in B. autocratic top. In the interest of expediting B. in 1905. was to appoint deans, deselect them in the faculties. His detractors called him 'Tsar Nicholas', where B. dismissed several employees before the First World War, and in 1917. dismissed two professors who criticized the law on appeal. Several teachers, in t.ch. Beard, in protest resigned. B. defended his position, arguing that academic freedom does not give the right to undermine the moral and social fabric
As a conservative Republican, B. participated actively in political life. He attended the national convention, facilitated the bills, kept the election campaign, was an advisor to national leaders in t.ch. Theodore Roosevelt. In 1920, Mr.. B. his candidature for the presidential election, but received only one vote - his own son - and withdrew the nomination.
During visits to Europe in the 80's and 90's. XIX century. B. carried away by ideas of peace, he met with the French Senator Paul d'Esturnellem de Constant and other leaders. As chairman of the Conference on International Arbitration at Lake Mogonk (1907 and 1909 ... 1912) B. advocated the need for arms control and the establishment of an international court. His speeches were published in 1912. entitled 'International perspective', which became a popular expression among internationalists.
In 1910,. B. persuaded Andrew Carnegie to allocate $ 10 million to the Foundation for International Peace (named after Carnegie). B. conducted in the fund for the education department until 1925, when he succeeded Elihu Root as President. Led by B. fund to rebuild Europe after World War II, libraries, promote cultural communication, sponsored teaching of international relations in college.
Many made B. public support for the Kellogg Pact - Briand, named in honor of the main negotiators Frank Kellogg and Aristide Briand. Representatives of 15 countries in 1928. signed the pact, which condemn war as an instrument of national policy, but did not provide ways to protect the world.
'Over the boundless energy and zeal in the cause of peace' B. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, which he shared with Jane Addams. Not being able to attend the awards ceremony, B. sent in Oslo lengthy Broadcast, from which only fragments remain. In 30-ies. B. continued to preach his views that economic nationalism is a threat to peace; B. called for the economic unity of Europe and criticized the neutrality laws the United States.
B. married in 1887, Mr.. Susanne Edwards on Shyuyler, daughter of a manufacturer-gunsmith, who died in 1903. Their only daughter, Sarah, born in 1893, lived long. Second marriage B. with Kate La Montagne in 1907. was unsuccessful. Being controversial figure throughout their careers, B. their beliefs and actions become influential friends and powerful enemies. Among his well-wishers were the French philosopher Henri Bergson, English writer HG Wells, an American thinker Henry Mencken, Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo. On the other hand, such progressive leaders as Robert Lafollet, Judge Harlan Fiske Stone and writer Upton Sinclair, considered B. an opportunist and a servant of the ruling class. Particularly outspoken critic B. subjected to contact with Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II, as well as the Italian dictator Mussolini. However, with the beginning of the Second World War in Europe B. became one of the staunchest supporters of America's entry into the war against the Axis powers.
At the age of 75 B. declared its willingness to 'die at work', but the loss of vision and progressive deafness in 1945. forced him to resign. He caught pneumonia and died two years later in New York.