Boyd Orr (Boyd Orr), John( Scottish teacher Nobel Peace Prize, 1949)
Comments for Boyd Orr (Boyd Orr), John
Biography Boyd Orr (Boyd Orr), John
September 23, 1880, Mr.. - June 25, 1971
Scottish teacher John Boyd Orr was born in Kilmaurse, the fourth of seven children of Robert Clark Orr, owner of a small quarry, and Annie Boyd. B.O. brought up in austerity and piety. When he was five years old, his father's company encountered some financial difficulties and family Orr moved to a more modest home in West Kilbride, near Fertof of Clyde.
Primary B.O. got home, thanks to my mother and grandmother on the paternal. At age 13 he enrolled in kilmarnokskuyu school in the neighborhood, but showed so little interest in occupations that had been sent home. After that, he worked with his father and attended rural school, a lot of time with a reading. In 19 years B.O. received a royal scholarship and enrolled in the University of Glasgow in the theological department. But at the same time he became acquainted with Darwin's theory, which made a very strong impression, and with the growth of interest in science B.O. gradually moved away from the church.
After graduating from university in 1902, B.O. the terms of appointment of scholarships for four years taught in the slums of Glasgow and in a valley near the town Soltkouts. Shaken by poverty, malnutrition and disease, his students, B.O. returned to university to study medicine. In 1914, Mr.. He graduated with honors faculty and for some time conducted a medical practice. Soon after he took an administrative position in the laboratory for the study of forage at Aberdeen University, established shortly before. All equipment is housed in the basement, and the first thing B.O. began to collect funds for an extensive construction program, the implementation of which coincided with the outbreak of the First World War.
Having obtained leave, B.O. enlisted in the army. After spending 18 months in England, he became a medical officer in an infantry regiment that participated in the battles of the Somme, at Ypres and Paskendele. The Courage B.O. was awarded the Military Cross and the Order "For Distinguished Service '. Having come to the conclusion that may be of greater benefit in the Navy, he made the translation, but was soon recalled to develop nutrition requirements for the military.
After the war B.O. returned to Aberdeen, completing construction of the laboratory. In subsequent years, he created Rouettsky Research Institute for the study of nutrition, laboratory of Walter Reid, an experimental farm of John Duty Webster, Nutrition Center Stratkon House, where the assembled experts from around the world.
. From the first day of work in Rouette B.O
. investigated the importance of protein metabolism and for the animals that rapidly enhance its scientific reputation. In 1925, Mr.. during surveys in Africa, he compared the food system and the life of the pastoral Maasai, whose economy is based on meat, milk and blood, and the living conditions of the Kikuyu, feed mainly on corn. B.O. convinced that the development of the institute can be used to improve human health. The first step in this direction B.O. did their study the nutritional quality of cow's milk.
Despite the considerable development of the dairy industry in England, the nutritional value of milk - especially for children - underestimated; to keep prices farmers to avoid overproduction. In the first study B.O. and his colleagues seized in Ireland and Scotland, three groups of students. The first group were given half a pint of milk a day, the other - a pint of skim milk, and the third - the same calorie biscuits. For seven months, the children who received milk, considerably added to the growth, improved their health. Similar results were found among families with children in the mining area of Lanarkshire. Based on these data, the British Parliament passed a law on the supply of cheap or free milk in public schools.
During the 30-ies. Research B.O. continued, he was convinced that Britain needs to be focused and science-based food policy, but to achieve government support he could not. Lively discussion in 1936. caused by the publication of his work 'Nutrition, health and income', which stated that less than half the British can not afford the necessary food, and every tenth - malnourished. As a member of the technical committee of the League of Nations food B.O. helped to develop a statement of the principles of nutrition, planned what he styled 'the marriage of health and agriculture', worldwide.
International tension late 30-ies. forced to postpone these plans. In 1938. British government, concerned the danger of war, commissioned B.O. assess the food stocks of Nazi Germany. On his return he reported on more than satisfactory nutrition Germanic youth and well thought out agricultural program. Growth of the threat of war prompted B.O. to reflect on wartime food policy. In the book 'Power of the people during the war' ( 'Feeding the People in War Time'), . written jointly with David Lubbock and saw the light in 1940, . developed low-cost power supply system with the use of domestic products, . which can provide vital functions of the nation,
. It also included measures of food rationing, price controls, regulation of agricultural production, many of them were subsequently adopted.
In 1942, Mr.. B.O. the invitation Milbenkskogo memorial fund has visited the U.S., where he met with Vice President Henry Wallace to discuss the global food policy. In 1943, Mr.. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt invited the delegates of the Allied nations in Hot Springs (Virginia), which started to develop one of the principles of the Atlantic Charter - 'Freedom from want'. The British Government has not included B.O. the delegation, in part because he championed international action that could damage the competitiveness of the UK on the international market.
In 1945, Mr.. B.O. left his post in Rouettskom Research Institute, and entered public life, and later students of the University of Glasgow chose him as rector.
. Develop plans conference in Hot Springs was the meeting of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), convened in Quebec (1945)
. Again, not included in the composition of the British delegation, B.O. accepted the proposal of Philip Noel-Baker to accompany the delegation informally. At the suggestion of the Canadian Ambassador to the United States Lester Pearson B.O. addressed the delegates with a call to give the organization not only advisory, but also the nature of executive. Unhappy with a lack of understanding the audience, he was about to return to England when he received the news that the elected Director General of FAO.
Elected for a two B.O. quickly set up the administration, whose analysis of post-war food stocks found that some 75 million Europeans are faced with a crisis in this area. To avoid the threat of famine, B.O. convened a meeting of FAO, was established the International Emergency Food Council to coordinate the distribution of products. At the conference, FAO, 1947. Copenhagen B.O. proposed the creation of the UN Council on Food, to the rapid postwar growth of the population is not overtaken the world community. But at the insistence of the United States and Great Britain's plan was rejected as threatening national sovereignty.
When in 1948. term positions in the FAO has expired, B.O. continued to advocate their views in articles and speeches. He urged the country's advanced technology to end hunger in the world and defended the idea of world government that can end wars. B.O. traveled extensively in Europe, and in 1949. accepted an invitation to visit India, which advised the government on agricultural development and distribution of products.
B.O. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his work 'not only in the liberation of humanity from want, . but also in laying the foundations of peaceful co-operation between the classes, . nations and races', . as the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gunnar Jan,
. Then he said: 'Just have to think and do as much benefit to mankind, as he, and this work will undoubtedly pave the way for peace'.
In his Nobel lecture 'Science and Peace' B.O. touched on the possibility of "eliminating the causes of war and enter into an era of global unity through new knowledge and the conquest of nature, which provides modern science '. Speaking of 'one or another form of world government with the agreed international laws and the means for carrying them out', . He made the necessary caveat: "Of course, . of the world can be no question, . when so many people are deprived of basic needs and aspires to change the political and economic system,
. World peace must rest on the universal abundance '.
B.O. not remain aloof from international affairs and in subsequent years. In 1951, Mr.. He visited Pakistan, where he helped to strengthen the distribution system, and later became a member of the British delegation at the Economic Conference 1952. in Moscow, took part in the scientific and economic contacts with Eastern European countries. B.O. also visited China in 1956. and in 1962. - Cuba. In 1971, Mr.. At age 90, died on at his home near Brechina in Scotland.
Throughout life and support B.O. has his wife (nee Elizabeth Pearson Kollum), whom he married in 1915. They had two daughters and a son, who died during the Second World War. Known for its serviceability, B.O. dedicated studies 6 days a week. Tall and thin man with a soft blue eyes, B.O. because of its candor possessed an unusual gift of persuasion. In his leisure he loved to walk alone in the hills of Scotland, the Scottish folk dances.
Holder of many honorary degrees, received at various universities in Europe, B.O. in 1935. was knighted and in 1948. become peer. He was a member of the Royal Society, honorary member of the American Public Health Association and the New York Academy of Sciences. In 1945, Mr.. B.O. was elected president of the National Peace Council. Among his other awards - Garbenovskaya Medal of the Royal Institute of Health of the people, Lasker Award of the American Public Health Association, the French Legion of Honor.