Balch (Balch), Emily Green( American ekonomistkaNobelevskaya Peace Prize, 1946)
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Biography Balch (Balch), Emily Green
January 8, 1867, Mr.. - January 9, 1961
American ekonomistka, provozvestnitsa social reform and activist for peace Emily Greene Balch was born in an old New England family near Boston (Massachusetts). The second daughter of Francis Vergne Balch and Ellen Mary Noyes B. was raised in the tradition of unitary, which provides that the severity of thinking, self-discipline and high standards of morality. Father B. was a wealthy lawyer, in the past - Assistant Charles Sumner, abolitionist and pacifist.
For example, biographies of B. You can see how increased in the late XIX century. educational opportunities for women. In 1886. B. admitted to the newly created women's college, and three years later, she was awarded a bachelor's degree, teachers characterized B. as a man 'inimitable beauty of the soul'. During the next two years B. attended lectures at the Sorbonne, studying French system of assistance to the poor.
Returning from Europe in 1891, B. become a social member of the Boston Society for Children. The following year, together with enthusiasts homes communes she founded in Boston, Denison House. At the same time B. carried away by the trade union movement and in 1893. entered into the Federal Labor Union. But, feeling the constant need to 'benefit', B. soon came to the conclusion that more effective teaching activities will, under which could be 'to awaken in the pupil a desire to work to improve social conditions'. Inspired by this aim, B. began to study economics in college at the Harvard-Enneks (later renamed Red Cliff College), University of Chicago, completing education at the University of Berlin (1896).
Completing training, B. began teaching economics in college Uelsli, where her colleagues were Katherine Coman, Vida Scudder, Ellen Hayes. Unusual topics and content of courses B. covered the questions of socialism, the theory of consumption, labor, immigration, the role of women in the economy. One of her students, Mary Vyumen, later told me that B. sought to convey to students the need to move from class and racial prejudices.
Academic classes B. complementary interest reformism gradually she moved closer to the people radicalization. B. often supported the unpopular strike, in 1902. she became one of the founders of the Boston Branch of the Women's Trade Union League, an organization working to raise wages and better working conditions for women. Declared itself the Socialist in 1906, B. began to perform various state and municipal obligations. In 1913, Mr.. She led the commission on minimum wage, which held the first national law on minimum wage.
Passion B. social issues not only enriched her teaching activities, but also led to the scientific work. In 1904 ... 1906. Studying the problem of immigration and racism, she visited several of the Slavic community in the U.S. and even traveled to Austria-Hungary, where the bulk of immigrants arrived. The result of research led to the publication of the book 'Our fellow citizens - the Slavs' ( 'Our Slavik Fellow Citizens', 1910), which refuted the views of the racial inferiority of the Slavs, relied on by the demands for restricting immigration. In 1913, Mr.. B. took professorships in the College Uelsli and was elected for five years the dean of department of economics and sociology.
. Since the beginning of the First World War, B., Jane Addams and 40 other activists formed the U.S. delegation to the International Congress of Women, 1915
. in The Hague, seeking to develop a plan for ending the war, B. concluded that international pacifism is the most appropriate means for expressing its views. Within two years, B. writing articles for the liberal magazine 'Nation', speaking against the war, mobilization, legislation on espionage. As a member of the Committee against militarism (existed before the emergence of the American Civil Liberties Union) B. defended opponents of the war and participated in their demonstrations. Administration College Uelsli repeatedly expressed dissatisfaction with the views of BN, and in 1918. she leaves work.
Since B. completely devoted herself to the struggle for peace. In 1919, Mr.. she attended the 2 nd International Congress of Women, establishing the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. The first secretary-treasurer of the League B. saw the purpose of the organization in the rejection of the warriors. In connection with its new responsibilities it has entered into close contact with the newly created League of Nations. Correspondence with its leaders shows the breadth of interests BS: among the issues discussed - the international disarmament and entry into the League of Albania, the fight against drug abuse, protection of minority rights.
In 1926, Mr.. B. the women's league in the commission investigated the conditions of life in occupied Haiti, commission report, one of the authors of which was BV, recommended the withdrawal of U.S. troops and the government of the island. B. located at the origins of ethnic Sunday school. While many forces working in the various commissions, B. characterized as the ability to reconcile different points of view, lead the disputing parties to agreement. The desire to cooperate, according to B., in the international arena could bring lasting peace.
In 30-ies. Alarmed by the persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany, B. took part in the fate of refugees. The Second World War put B. faced with the need to determine their attitude toward pacifism. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, Mr.. B. moved away from absolute pacifism, and welcomed the entry of America into the war. However, on behalf of the League, she assisted the Americans of Japanese ancestry interned in special camps. B. condemned the government's policies aimed at the unconditional surrender of Japan, believing that it would prolong the war, in 1944. she presented to President Franklin D. Roosevelt offers post-war appeasement.
In 1946, Mr.. B. became the second American, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. She was awarded for 'long, tireless work for peace'. B. shared the prize with John Mott. Heart disease prevented her to attend the ceremony, the Nobel lecture 'On the unity of mankind. Overcome nationalism 'she introduced later, during a trip to Norway in April 1948
Climbing over the tradition of separating peoples, B. felt at home everywhere, wherever it was. She called herself 'impersonal being' able to live among books, religion and nature. 'From us does not require the worship of a utopia, belief in a perfect world - say B. in his Nobel lecture - should only arm courage, hope and readiness to work and maintain the ideals of dignity and generosity. "
In 1956, Mr.. BA, having no family, moved to the Cambridge hospital (Massachusetts), where she died in 1961