BORLOUG (Borlaug), Norman( The American geneticist and specialist in plant pathology Nobel Peace Prize, 1970)
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Biography BORLOUG (Borlaug), Norman
genus. March 25, 1914
American geneticist and specialist in plant pathology, Norman Ernest Borloug was born in Iowa in the family of Henry and Clara Borloug, farmers of Norwegian origin. B. and his younger sister grew up on a farm near Kresko, where he also studied at the school. Harry Schroeder, who taught agricultural science in secondary school Kresko, later said that 'he always felt an innate interest in B. the processes of growth and nature of the soil '. Noting this interest, Schroeder began to work with B. additionally.
After graduating from high school in 1932, B. enrolled in the University of Minnesota, where he studied forest affair. Alvin Charles Stakmen, a leading specialist in crops, headed at the time of plant pathology department. In the first year B. came to the lecture Stakmena, which made him such a deep impression that the young man decided he had to engage. When B. received a bachelor's degree in 1937, Stakmen suggested that he write a thesis on plant pathology. Following the advice Stakmena, B. remained at the university, laboring as a forester. In 1939, Mr.. he becomes a master, and in 1942. Ph.D.. His thesis was devoted to fungal diseases of flax.
In 1937, after graduating college, B. married Margaret G. Gibson. They had a son and a daughter.
Getting Paul Mц+ller dichloro-difeniltrihloretana (DDT) initiated the widespread use of pesticides in agriculture. In 1939, Mr.. against the Colorado potato beetle, potato fields, threatened to Switzerland, was first successfully used the insecticide. During the Second World War, the use of herbicides and other means of protection in the United States reached a peak. DDT was widely used on American farms and the military services, particularly in tropical areas where ticks and other pests were a serious threat to health. In 1942 ... 1944. B. worked at E. DuPont de Nemours in Wilmington (Delaware), where he directed research in the field of industrial and agricultural bactericides, means of combating the fungus, etc.
At the same time with strong harvests faced Mexico. Concerned with the lack of strong, disease-resistant varieties of wheat, the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture requested the assistance of the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1944, Mr.. Fund seconded by George Harrara, a specialist in the field of plant pathology, Mexico. The team included scientists Harrar and B., who was to organize and conduct research and production program in Mexico.
. It was supposed to conduct research on genetics, breeding, pathology, entomology, agronomy, soil science and technology of cereals
. Working with Mexican agronomists, B. and his assistants have created a highly seasoned wheat varieties suited to local conditions. To accelerate agricultural production B. grew two crops a year, one - a short fall in Sonora, approximately at sea level, the other - in the summer in the mountains near Mexico City. These wheat varieties were resistant to different climatic conditions and the majority of diseases.
By 1948, Mr.. wheat harvest in Mexico has reached such numbers that the country still imported half of its grain, completely abandoned the import. In 50-ies. increase the yield declined - primarily because of excessive use of fertilizers has led to excessive growth and instability of the stem, grain losses. In 1954, Mr.. B. and his colleagues crossed with a dwarf Mexican wheat varieties from Japan. The resulting variety was twice as productive source of Mexican and nine times the original varieties of Mexican wheat. Dwarf Mexican variety of the more rational use of fertilizers, which influenced the grain more than the stem.
In 1961. dwarf varieties of improved seeds were distributed to Mexican farmers. Honors Research Group BV, which is now termed the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement, attracted attention in other countries experiencing food difficulties. B. in 1959. visited Pakistan, and in 1963. - India, but the administrative and political barriers to seriously undermine its efforts to increase crop yields in these countries.
Start the program so-called 'green revolution' B. began in the mid 60-ies. Politics 'take-off yield' gave them the economic and psychological boost. 'I am impatient, - said Boris - and do not need to slow changes to improve agriculture and food production in the affected countries'. Aim B. in each case was a doubling of wheat production in the first year of work.
Impressed by the work of Mexican B. Scientists of the International Rice Research Institute, organized by the Philippines in the 60-ies., withdrew polukarlikovy rice variety. The new variety has initiated 'green revolution' in South-East Asia. Program B. benefited six Latin American countries, eight Middle Eastern and two Asian.
B. once said: 'One of the greatest threats to humanity today comes from a comprehensive and well camouflaged bureaucracy'. To succeed, in his view, need to 'shake up government.
Nobel Peace Prize 1970. was awarded to B. for his contribution to solving the food problem, especially for the implementation of 'green revolution'. Presenting winner. Ose Liones said: 'No one else of his generation did not do so in order to give bread to the hungry world ...'
In his Nobel lecture B. expressed his conviction that 'first and most important component of social justice is plenty of food for mankind ... If you aspire to the world - to impose justice, but at the same time to cultivate the fields to get more bread, otherwise there will be no peace '. Furthermore Meanwhile, he said: 'People should realize that food is only one of the conditions of life. Decent life comes to education, labor, rewarding, comfortable homes, good clothes, effective and compassionate care. And once a person - potentially a rational creature, . I convinced, . that within two decades, he is aware of the harmfulness of the path of irresponsible population growth and limit its level of, . the necessary conditions for all mankind '.,
. In the early 70-ies
. B. was involved in a dispute with the defenders of nature, which criticized his agricultural programs for the use of machinery, chemical fertilizers and potent pesticides like DDT. As an opponent of pollution, B. nevertheless rejected this criticism, considering it unreasonable and alarmist.
With many environmentalists B. shared the belief that serious efforts should be made to limit the 'frightening scale of human reproduction'. 'Green Revolution', according to BA, brought temporary success in the war against hunger and deprivation, she gave the man the possibility of 'breath'. B. acknowledged that the 'green revolution' has not solved all the problems of production and distribution of food. Nevertheless, humanity is much better to deal with circumstances arising from the abundance, 'than to return to the old threat of hunger'.
In 1979. B. resigned as director of the International Program for Research and production of wheat at the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement in Mexico City, . but retained contact with it, . remaining deputy director of the Rockefeller Foundation, . which has run since 1964,
. The Fund continued to fund agricultural research in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture of Mexico.
Since 1984, Mr.. B. is professor emeritus of agriculture at the University of Texas 'Hey-end-em'. In addition, he is a member of the U.S. Civilian Commission on Science, Law and food, as well as the Commission on Emergency Situations in America. B. was an adviser to the Fund for Renewable Resources Fund and a consultant study of the population in Mexico. B. - The author of several books and more than 70 scientific and popular articles.
In 1977. B. awarded the Medal of Freedom (USA), its services are marked by many governments and scientific societies around the world.