Aristide Briand (Briand Aristide)( French statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1926)
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Biography Aristide Briand (Briand Aristide)
March 28, 1862, Mr.. - March 7, 1932
French statesman Aristide Briand was born in Nantes (Brittany), the son of the innkeeper. He went to school nearby town of Saint-Nazaire, Nantes and then in high school, where at one time served as a famous writer Jules Verne. Despite a lively mind, oratorical gift and an excellent memory, B. was an average student, tk. a lot of time to alcoholic beverages and playing cards.
After receiving the degree, B. engaged in legal practice in San Nazaire, where for a time also published their own newspaper. Not having success as a lawyer, B. increasingly keen on journalism and politics. Joined the Socialist party, he becomes the platform of trade unionism and in favor of decisive action, in particular for the general strike as a means of achieving the objectives of the working class. In 1894, after the workers' congress in Nantes approved the proposal of B. a general strike, he was elected General Secretary of the Socialist Party. B. left legal practice and devoted himself entirely to politics.
In 1902, Mr.. After several unsuccessful attempts B. elected to the Chamber of Deputies, where he soon won a reputation of exceptional speaker. B. and his associates managed to laws on the separation of church and state. In March 1906. He became Minister of Education and Worship in the centrist government of Jean Marie Sarryana he spent in the lives of those laws that are upheld in Parliament. However, the Socialist Party, who opposed cooperation with Sarryanom, he had to leave. To protect themselves from attack, B. pointed out that the Socialists would be advantageous to have a voice in the Government and that cooperation with other parties will be more useful than uncompromising in anticipation of the parliamentary majority.
. The Third Republic was a succession of short-lived and often helpless government, various political factions were complicated game, trying to enact their programs
. In this volatile environment B. two decades has held important positions in various offices.
The first government of Georges Clemenceau, was formed in October 1906, left B. as Minister of National Education and Worship. Two years later, he received additional portfolio of Minister of Justice. When in July 1909. Clemenceau government fell, B. became prime minister.
Despite its intention to seek national peace and dialogue, B. faced with a crisis in October 1910, when struck railways. B. admit strike in principle, but the special role of railways in the national economy forced him to suppress the speech of employees. Railroad workers were called to active military service, and the strike leaders arrested. Subsequent riots led to a cabinet reshuffle, but retain a majority coalition B. failed, and in February 1911. he resigned.
In January next year, B. became Minister of Justice in the office of Raymond Poincare, whom he succeeded as prime minister a year later was elected president of the Poincare. The government lasted only two months, and B. Then, seeking to expand the government, Prime Minister Rene Viviani again proposed B. Minister of Justice. With the fall administration Viviani in October, 1915. he headed a government of national reconciliation, which included representatives of all political parties of France. Combining the Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, B. leaning in favor of peace negotiations with Germany. For this he criticized many members of the government. Following the resignation of Minister of War, B. lost the support and retired in March, 1917. His government formed Paul PainlevцL and Georges Clemenceau.
Moving away from public activity, B. played no official role at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, but made no secret of dissatisfaction by the Versailles Treaty, tk. considered it too much for Germany, unable to bring sustainable peace. In January, 1921. B. once again became prime minister, but resigned a year later, when the Chamber of Deputies to ratify the Anglo-French defense pact, prepared jointly with the British Prime Minister Lloyd George. Nevertheless, in April 1925. B. became Minister of Foreign Affairs, to leave them for five and a half years in various French governments.
Shortly after the Paris Conference for many, it became clear that the conditions of a peace treaty can not bring lasting peace. Correct this situation was the Dawes Plan (named after Charles Dawes), changing the system of reparation payments Germany: in September 1924. entered into force. February 9, 1925, Mr.. Germany's Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann sent a note to the French government to sign a joint non-aggression treaty between Britain, France and Germany are guaranteeing the Franco-Germanic border. The objectives of French foreign policy of the pact, according to BA, not inconsistent. Moreover, it could bring Britain to the defense of France, and possibly convince the United States, whose interest in European politics steadily increased, to become a guarantor of French security. Therefore B. entered into secret negotiations with Stresemann, British Foreign Minister J. Austen Chamberlain and representatives of former enemies Germany. Objective B. was primarily to ensure the safety of France, by overcoming the injustice of the Versailles Treaty.
In October 1925. results of the negotiations were made public during the meetings of foreign ministers of seven European countries in Locarno (Switzerland). Achieved there agreement in the aggregate entered into history as the Locarno Pact. For France is particularly important were provisions for the demilitarization of the Rhineland, military assistance to France, Poland and Czechoslovakia in the event of an attack on them, and international guarantees of postwar Franco-border. Besides. Covenant obliges the UK to France's aid if Germany attacked.
The Locarno agreements were met with approval in France, which strengthened the political reputation of B. domestically. A month after signing the contract, he again became prime minister. Although this government lasted less than four months, B. continued to play an important role in political life, contributing to a lot of post-war reconstruction of Europe.
Role B. in the Locarno Pact and friendly dialogue of France and Germany after years of mistrust was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926, which he shared with his partner in Germany's Locarno Gustav Stresemann. B. not participated in the ceremony of awarding the Nobel lecture and did not speak.
Meanwhile. not lose hope for permanent union with the United States as a major guarantor of French security and peace of Europe as a whole. In 1926, Mr.. addressed him Myurrey Nicholas Butler and James T. Shotvell of the Foundation for International Peace behalf of Carnegie, who assumed a favorable attitude to the proposal of the U.S. alliance, coming from France. April 6, 1927, the tenth anniversary of U.S. entry into World War I, B. sent U.S. Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg note to conclude a treaty of friendship. However, fear of depriving the U.S. freedom of action, Kellogg struck up with an answer before the end of the year, and then sent a B. message, in which instead of a bilateral treaty proposes to unite all nations into the pact, 'condemning the war as an instrument of national policy'. In the months between B. and Kellogg continued polite correspondence. Although B. rightly believed that a multilateral pact, condemning the war, will be formal, he nevertheless could not reject the idea of the Kellogg. The result of the transatlantic exchange of views on the Paris Pact, better known as the Kellogg Pact --Briand, he was signed in the French capital on Aug. 17, 1928, Mr.. representatives of 15 countries, and later their number reached to 65. Although all 15 original participants pact violated it at different times, he was never denounced by anyone.
Despite the political capital, which yielded B. Locarno Agreement and the pact Kellogg - Briand, as well as the prestige of the Nobel Laureate, his influence to end 20-ies. began to decrease. Memorandum 1930. of the United States of Europe, written by him and directed 26 States, nobody seriously considered by either the League of Nations, nor the governments. In the presidential elections in May 1931. B. defeated. Less than a year, 7 March 1932, he died in Paris.