VALENCIA (Walesa), Lech( Polish labor leader Nobel Peace Prize, 1983)
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Biography VALENCIA (Walesa), Lech
genus. September 29, 1943
Polish labor leader Lech Walesa (Leszek Michaе- Walesa) was born in the village of Popovo, north of Warsaw during the Nazi occupation of Poland. He was one of eight children of a carpenter Boleslaw Walesa and his wife, Felix. Father. died in 1946. from wounds in a German forced labor camps.
Receiving primary education in parochial school, in. enrolled in vocational school in Lipno, where he acquired qualified electrician. Did not show much progress in their studies, in. already demonstrated a striking organizational skills. 'I was always the instigators in the class - he later confessed in an interview. - I was always ahead '. After serving two years in the army. in 1967. settled shipyard electrician named VI. Lenin in the Baltic port of Gdansk.
In response to rising food prices Gdansk in 1970. became the center of protest. Striking shipyard workers took to the streets during the four-day riot among them were the victims. V., a member of the Action Committee, led a strike. Back to the days later, he admitted that misjudge the situation, when to expect to win workers. As a result of labor unrest Wladyslaw Gomulka was replaced as secretary of the Communist Polish United Workers' and Government made some concessions.
During the reign of Edward Gierek (Gomulka's successor), the Polish economy has experienced a serious recession, and in 1976. prices were again raised. V. rejoined the labor unrest, for which he was dismissed. Interrupting odd jobs, he joined the Committee of public self-defense, the dissident group, and began to develop links with growing Polish labor movement. Despite harassment by the secret police, periodic arrests,. published a clandestine newspaper 'Waterside Workers' ( 'Robotnik wybrzeza'), and in 1979. established illegal Baltic free trade union. Later, together with other labor leaders in. signed a charter of workers' rights, which among other things, demanded the right to form independent trade unions and to strike.
Higher prices for meat in July 1980. caused new anxiety among workers. A month later, the strikers took over the Lenin Shipyard and demanded reinstatement of trade unionists. V. joined his colleagues and led the strike committee. The government, concerned the extent of unrest, entered into negotiations with the strikers. Although. reputation of being stubborn man, he was wary of provoking the government to any adverse action, to reduce the risk of violence,. banned the sale of alcohol, and workers occupied the shipyard decoration Polish flags and portraits of Pope John Paul II and flowers that served as a symbol of nationalism, commitment to religion, the hopes for the successful conclusion of the strike.
. The talks ended on August 31, when in
. and the Deputy Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Jagielski signed the GdaеLsk agreement. In accordance with the workers gained the right to associate in unions and to strike for a raise, trade unions and the church have access to the media, it was agreed to release political prisoners. In turn, the unions have recognized the supremacy of the Communist Party, the legitimacy of its relations with other countries in Eastern Europe.
. After 10 weeks, the Polish Supreme Court affirmed the right of unions to register as a national union 'Solidarity'
. As chairman of the National Commission of Solidarity in. followed a moderate policy, and the radicals accused him of excessive willingness to compromise. Meanwhile, the government implemented some points of the Gdansk Agreement: strikes, boycotts and violence have become commonplace. March 27, 1981, Mr.. 13 million of Polish industrial workers staged a four-hour strike, the first national congress of Solidarity delegates called for free elections in Poland. Despite the strong opposition of radicals in. was elected president 55% of the votes.
In December 1981, Mr.. radicals in Gdansk demanded a referendum on the future of the communist government and the revision of political relations between Poland and the Soviet Union. 'You have a' - said angrily in. union leaders. December 13, 1981, Mr.. Government imposed martial law: General Jaruzelski - the defense minister, prime minister and the newly elected party leader - arrested all the leaders of the union. Solidarity was banned, the army took the city in Poland. Interned for almost a year, in. witnessed the defeat he established trade union movement.
In. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1983. - Primarily for political reasons, as some. On behalf of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Egil Orvik said: "Awarding Lech Walesa is not only the Poles, solidarity, the conductor of which he is, presupposes the unity of mankind, which is why it belongs to us all. The world heard his voice and understood his message '. Orvik added: "The Nobel Prize, only to note that. The Committee believes that it serves as an inspiring example for all who struggle for freedom and humanity '.
Fearing that he was not allowed to return to Poland, in. asked his wife to Miroslav attend in his stead at a ceremony in Oslo. She read the letter V, which expressed "deepest gratitude for the recognition of the vitality and strength of our ideas (human solidarity), which has resulted in the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize, the chairman of Solidarity '.
. Nobel lecture in
. read Bogdan Tsivinski, one of the leaders of Solidarity, was hiding in Brussels. It In. argued that 'the primary need in Poland are understanding and dialogue. I think that this applies to the whole world: we can not avoid negotiations, we must not close the door and block the road to understanding. It should be remembered that the world will be long when it is based on justice and moral order '.
In January 1986, Mr.. V. charged with defamation of the organizers of the elections in 1985, allegedly falsified results. If he was convicted, he could be sentenced to two years imprisonment, but in February, charges were dropped, and in. returned to his wife and children - they had eight. V. devout Catholic and attends church every. The Catholic Church in Poland had contributed to the design of its non-violent politics and always maintained in. He almost always wears a badge with the image of the Virgin Mary. Speeches in. prepared in vernacular style, they are not always respected the grammatical rules that appeals to listeners; In. often shows a rich sense of humor. Despite some concessions by the government - six-room apartment, a permanent job and a solid earnings - in. thought that was under constant surveillance, and traveled only when accompanied by bodyguards. According to V., Gdansk Agreement 'is the Great Charter of workers' rights, which nothing can undo. "
Underground activities Employees' Union 'Solidarity', however, continued, in 1989. opposition was not only legalized but also won the parliamentary elections. The coalition government headed by a former adviser in the. Mazowiecki. December 9, 1990, Mr.. V. won the presidential election, for it was given to 75% of the votes. Presidential regalia In. received from the hands of the former President of the Polish, who lived in exile since the beginning of the Second World War.