DUNE (Dunant), Henry( Swiss humanist and founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the Nobel Peace Prize, 1901)
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Biography DUNE (Dunant), Henry
May 8, 1828, Mr.. - October 30, 1910
Jean Henri Dunant, Swiss humanist and founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), was born in a pious wealthy Geneva family. His father, Jean-Jacques Dunant, the ruling council met in Geneva, in his responsibilities included oversight of foster homes for orphans. Grandpa D. was director of the Geneva Hospitals and the Mayor of the nearby town. D. The mother, Anna Antoinette Colladon, was the sister of the famous physicist Daniel Colladon.
In his early years among the interests of the D. dominated by economics, religion and social activities. Studying economics in the daytime, he visited the poor in the evenings. On Sundays, visiting the Calvinist Church, D. went to the local prison, where prisoners uttered words of comfort. In 18 years of age D. joined the Evangelical Organization 'Awakening', while popular in Geneva. In 1853, after meeting with the American writer Harriet Beecher Stowe, D. strongly against slavery, the struggle with which he conducted for several decades. D. participated actively in the work shortly before a Christian Youth Association (YMCA), its Paris branch, the first in Europe, opened in 1855
. Realizing that he could not get a livelihood of one charity, D
. the age of 26 began working in the representation of one of Geneva's largest banks in North Africa and Sicily. He went on and their philanthropic activities and founded the YMCA branch in Algeria. At the same time they were published travel notes on Algeria. One of the chapters of this work later published a book entitled 'Slavery and the Muslims in the United States' ( "L'Esclavage chez les Musulmans et aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique", 1863).
In 1859, Mr.. D. decided to start their own business, supervision of a large tract of land in Algeria, where the expected breed cattle and grow crops. Funding for Enterprise D. invited friends and relatives, as a result got quite an amount of 100 million. francs. However, to implement its plans to build a water pipe had to be: after fruitless talks with Algerian officials, the D. decided to appeal to the Emperor Napoleon III, who was in Solferino (Italy), where the French army, together with the Italian allies, prepared to repel the invasion of the Austrians. June 24, 1859, Mr.. D. arrived in Castiglione, where he witnessed one of the bloodiest battles of the XIX century. - Battle of Solferino, which targeted 40 thousand. casualties. 'It was a melee, unspeakably awful - later recalled D. - Austrian and Allied troops trampling each other, were playing at the "warm corpses of the enemy were pouring butts, spreading his skull and disemboweled swords and bayonets. The battle moved to the slaughter, battle beasts, maddened with rage and drunken with the blood '.
After the battle, 6 thousand. people moved in Solferino, to bring the wounded in Castiglione. With French Pass, D. not stand aside. Improvised hospitals were deployed in homes, barracks, churches and monasteries. Once D. saw Italian soldiers threaten to throw the wounded Austrians from the steps of the church Chiesa Maggiore in Castiglione. 'Stop, - he cried, - do not do this! They are your brothers! " The soldiers obeyed him, and the words "Sono fratelli" ( 'They - the brothers') became the motto of the help system.
Only two doctors serving the affected. D. conducted in the Chiesa Maggiore, collecting food and organizing first aid by travelers, priests and journalists. Volunteers equipped with dressing room, and among the prisoners managed to find four more doctors. In the French headquarters of the D. secured the release of all Austrians, medically trained. He appealed for help to charitable organizations in Geneva. Later D. held the same job on the battlefields of Brescia and Milan.
Memory of Solferino haunted D. life. Streams of blood, the groans and cries of the wounded and again made him feel his helplessness in the face of suffering. In his book 'Memories of Solferino' ( "Un souvenir de Solferino", 1862) D. described the 'chaotic mess, untold frustration and all sorts of misfortune', caused by the battle, spoke for assistance in Castiglione and finally proposed the creation of an international organization to help victims of war. The book made the D. famous. The ruling circles of Europe and the journalists have expressed a great interest in his plan.
In February next year, the Geneva Society of prosperity - the humanitarian organization, comprised of the most prominent citizens - was to implement a plan D. in life. Society has established a committee of five persons, entered into him and David, who called to begin a campaign to support. 'We must expand the campaign - said he was Swiss colleagues at the first meeting. - Our attitude should be to win recognition around the world - among the strongest and the small world, among the monarchs and peoples'. D. appealed to the governments and worked with such public figures as Victor Hugo, Charles Dickens and Florence Nightingale, in organizing an international conference that would combine the efforts of national aid groups.
. October 26, 1863, Mr.
. 39 delegates from 16 countries met in Geneva. They produced a draft treaty to assure the neutrality of those who assisted, and took an emblem - a red cross on a white background (a modified Swiss flag). Committee of five offering a coordination of national organizations that actually created the ICRC. The agreement, widely known as the Geneva Convention, was signed in Paris, representatives of 12 countries in the next year.
Absorbed in humanitarian activities, D. threw his Algerian business and in 1867, Mr.. bankrupt. Ignoring the circumstances and the good intentions of AD, several investors have accused him of fraud. Rejected by the Geneva Society, which honored him in his time, D. was poor. Nevertheless, he attended the general meeting of the Red Cross, held in Paris during the World Exposition. Then he made a proposal to guarantee the integrity of prisoners of war as the sick and wounded.
In 1871, during the Franco-Prussian War, D. founded the Society of Providence, whose mission is to protect prisoners of war, its offices were established in France, Britain, Belgium, Bavaria, United States. In 1872, Mr.. Society has been called the World Union of order and civilization, French and British Branch of the Union, joined in calling for the D. the dissemination of neutrality on the prisoners. Russian Tsar Alexander II contributed to a conference in Brussels, where there was a convention on the conduct of war and the treatment of prisoners. While the meeting did not bring immediate results, it has led to agreements on the rights of prisoners of war. United States, adhering strictly to the Monroe Doctrine, at first did not recognize the Red Cross. However, the American nurse Clara Barton, who worked on behalf of the Red Cross during frankoprusskoy war in 1881, founded the first division of society in the U.S.. In 1882, Mr.. U.S. Senate accepted the terms of the Geneva Convention on treatment of prisoners.
From 1871 to 1874,. D. most of the time was devoted to the World Alliance. In 1874,. he initiated a campaign against the slave trade, which still flourished in parts of Africa, in Egypt, Turkey, Afghanistan. Although slavery was forbidden by law in Europe in 1875. British Admiralty ordered the captains to return runaway slaves to their owners. As a member of Anti-Slavery Society, D. organized a vigorous protest, and new instructions have been canceled.
D. expressed support for the aspirations of European Jews to return to the land of their ancestors in Palestine. In 1864, Mr.. he founded the International Society for the revival of the East, whose goal was to create a European colony in Palestine. In search of funds for the enterprise D. established in 1876 by Mr.. Society of Syrian and Palestinian colonization. Members of the public relied on the allocation of land by the Turkish Sultan Abdul-Hamid, but the Russian-Turkish war of 1876, Mr.. violated these plans.
Subsequently D. lived in seclusion, appearing in the light rare. To raise funds for the benefit of the World Alliance of D. briefly lectured in England. Despised and forgotten by family friends, he settled in southern England, although some time lived in Paris where he was the secretary of the French Society of Friends Peace Frederic Passy.
Soon D. returned to Switzerland and began to wander from village to village, often without bread and. Despite the poverty, he carefully watched his appearance, concealing the dilapidated state of his coat with ink and bleaching a shirt in chalk. In 1892, Mr.. he settled in Haydenskom orphanage, where he spent the rest of life.
After years of obscurity he found the journalist William Zondregger, whose interview with D. was reprinted by many European newspapers. Learning about the plight of AD, the Russian Empress Dowager appointed him a small pension. Bertha von Suttner visited D. and offered to help restore his reputation. Suttner often wrote about him, and he D. began to cooperate with the pacifist magazine, which she uttered.
In 1901, Mr.. D. became the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which he shared with Frederic Passy. Illness prevented D. Hayden to leave to attend the ceremony. Selection of the Nobel Committee has caused conflicting opinions, some felt that attempts to D. mitigate the effects of the war led to its legalization. However, the premium notes at the outset the contribution D. in peaceful cooperation among nations.
Family D. not created. All funds received from the Nobel Committee, he bequeathed to philanthropic organizations, Norway and Sweden. D. also established a free bed for the poor in Haydenskom orphanage, where he spent the last 18 years of his life. The stone over his grave is decorated with the image of a kneeling man, who gives the water a wounded soldier.