Quidde (Quidde), Ludwig( Deutsch pacifist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1927)
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Biography Quidde (Quidde), Ludwig
March 23, 1858, Mr.. - March 4, 1941
Germanic pacifist Ludwig Quidde was born in Bremen, he was the eldest son of a prosperous merchant. Financial position enabled him to devote his life to peace. After school K. enrolled in Strasbourg and then to the University of Gottingen, where he studied medieval history in Germany. After receiving his Ph.D., K. become a member of the editorial board, to be published documents medieval Reichstag. In 1889, Mr.. he founded the 'Journal of Historical Sciences' ( 'Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft'), who edited for six years. From 1890 to 1892. K. was academic secretary of the Prussian Historical Institute in Rome.
To. came to pacifism under the influence of historical literature, a considerable effect on him has Margarethe Jacobson, with whom they were married in 1882, Mr.. In 1891, Mr.. K. joined Deutsche Gesellschaft Peace, founded by Alfred Freedom in the image of society, established in the Austrian Bertha von Suttner. In 1893, Mr.. K. published an anonymous pamphlet, 'Militarism in modern Germany' ( 'Der Militarismus im heutigen deutschen Reich'). In 1894, Mr.. K. under your name issued another pamphlet 'Caligula: the history of Caesarean madness' ( 'Caligula: Eine Studie uber romischen Casarenwahnsinn'). Although the pamphlet simulated historical work, his contemporaries correctly guessed it a satire on germanskogo Emperor Wilhelm II. Libel K. was sentenced to three months imprisonment.
In 1894, Mr.. K. strengthened its relationship with pacifism, creating an anti-war group in Munich, since he began to attend international peace conferences. A year later he took part in the reorganization of the German People's Party - the anti-militarist and anti-Prussian organization. During his political speech in 1896. K. was convicted of treason and spent three months in Munich prison.
After a few years to. become a recognized leader in the peace movement. He became a member of the International Peace Bureau, and in 1901. presided at the World Peace Congress in Glasgow (Scotland). A year later, K. was elected to the Munich city council. In 1905, Mr.. K. with Passy tried to achieve a peace agreement between France and Germany, and in 1907. K. organized the World Peace Congress in Munich. In 1907 ... 1908. of the German People's Party to. was elected to the Bavarian parliament.
To. was among the pacifists, who before the First World War tried to curb the arms race. In 1914, with the beginning of the war, to. left Germany. Information about this controversial period of his life: he lived either in Switzerland, whether in The Hague, but all sources agree on the fact that K. in contact with the pacifists in other countries and attended anti-war conference in The Hague, 1915. He continued to publish pamphlets outlining ways to eliminate wars at the expense of rebuilding international relations. In particular, K. urged people to renounce annexations and conclude an agreement on freedom of navigation and commerce.
After the war, to. returned to Germany and tried to restore this peace movement. He headed Deutsch cartel of the world, consisting of 21 organizations, and in 1919. was elected to the National Assembly. K. rebelled against the Versailles Treaty, because he laid full responsibility for the global war on Germany. On the other hand, K. strongly supported the League of Nations, associating with it their peace hopes. Angered by the rearmament of Germany, to. in 1924. wrote a series of articles in which he was charged with restoring the Air Force and military training of youth, that was at odds with the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles. According to K., such actions could cause a fatal reaction to the German economy France. K. was arrested and spent some time in prison "for collaborating with the enemy '.
To. shared the Nobel Peace Prize 1927. the French pacifist Ferdinand Buisson. Norwegian Nobel Committee praised the efforts of both winners, 'preparing public opinion in France and Germany to peaceful cooperation'. Representative committee Fredrik Stang in his speech said: 'organizational work for peace must precede the formation of the people, . that public opinion may turn away from war, . replacing a means of settling disputes other, . higher ideal of peaceful cooperation among nations, . when all differences will be decided by the International Court of Justice ',
. Stang continued: 'It is in the reorientation of public opinion and Buisson Quidde played such a prominent role. They have worked in countries where it is particularly difficult, although it is imperative '.
In his Nobel lecture to. talked about security and disarmament. 'Poor armed nations - he said - were falling into the abyss of war as easily as armed to the teeth, and always will be, as there are causes of war. Even a complete and general disarmament does not guarantee peace - if necessary in the course will flails and axes. When war breaks out, the people with no arms, soon it will. "
With regard to arms control. said: 'The development of weapons systems, the endless arms race, of course, in themselves pose a threat of war. Senior military does not always show off their power. Many of those who understand the danger of piling up stocks of weapons and gradually get used to the idea of the inevitability of war. They say: 'Better a horrible end than endless horror. This is one of the main causes of war '. Then K. reiterated his belief that international law can bring peace. 'It is clear that Europe can only choose between a war that uses gas and other modern weapons, and the world based on law', - said K.
Since coming to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933. K. again left Germany. He settled in Geneva, where remains active in the international peace movement until her death March 4, 1941