Kellogg (Kellogg), Frank( American jurist and statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1929)
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Biography Kellogg (Kellogg), Frank
December 22, 1856, Mr.. - December 21, 1937
American lawyer and statesman, Frank Billings Kellogg was born in Potsdam (New York) in the family Abigail Billings Kellogg and Kellogg Foundations of the Farnsworth. Shortly after the Civil War, when the boy was nine years old, the family moved west and settled on a farm near Elgin (Minnesota). After studying for five years in a rural school, Frank began to help his father on the farm, not yet grown younger brother.
No interest in the cultivation of wheat, K. moved to Rochester, where he no salary as a clerk in the law office. Earning some money laborer, K. studied history, law, Latin and German languages. In just two years, in 1877, he passed the exams and began law practice with another attorney. Lack of customers has forced the partners to become competitors of the city attorney positions, and victory to. achieved then the district attorney office, which is kept until 1886, when he married Clara Cook.
As the district attorney to. represented the interests of cities Elgin, Pleynvyu and Viola in a lawsuit with the railroad company, entered into a series of illegal transactions. Together with his cousin Kushmenom K. Davis, he won the case on appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. Building on the success, in 1887, Mr.. brothers founded the company 'Davis, Kellogg and Severens' and began to advise major corporations of the North-West United States, which flourished in an atmosphere of industrial expansion.
In 1900, Mr.. Editor of 'St. Paul payonie press' (' St. Paul Pioneer Press') proposed to. serving as a counselor in the antitrust fight against Universal Paper Company of Minnesota. The successful conduct of the case brought to. nationwide fame four years later, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him special adviser on antitrust matters at the Attorney General. K. played a central role in the 'Standard Oil v. United States' (1911), where the company was recognized as a monopoly, and the Supreme Court authorized its fragmentation. As a commercial advisor to the commission. also studied the railway company Edward Harriman.
All these years to. continued successful private practice and in 1912. was elected chairman of the American Bar Association. He attended the Republican Convention 1904,1908,1912 gg., And in 1916. was elected to the U.S. Senate, but the re-election in 1922. not achieved. A year later, President Warren Harding appointed to. delegate to the 5 th Pan-American Conference in Santiago (Chile).
As the U.S. ambassador to Britain in 1924 ... 1925. under the administration of Calvin Coolidge to. enlisted the support of 'Dawes Plan', named in honor of Charles Dawes - the head of an international commission to revise the reparations payments Germany. Being in 1925. U.S. Secretary of State, to. helped to end the border conflict with Chile and Peru, performed a supporter of American intervention in Nicaragua and took an active part in a conference on naval armaments of Great Britain and Japan. Years of residence to. State Department marked the preparation of 80 agreements, in t.ch. Paris Pact.
. The idea of the pact, . better known as the Covenant, the Kellogg - Briand, . emerged in 1927, . when the French foreign minister Aristide Briand made a proposal to conclude a Franco-American Treaty of Friendship, . excluding the war between the two states,
. Despite widespread support for Briand, Coolidge administration reacted with suspicion to the pact, which pegs the U.S. to the French interests; K. issued a counter-proposal of an international declaration major powers, 'condemning the war as an instrument of national policy'.
. After a series of maneuvers Brian has agreed to an extended version, which was initially signed by 15 nations in Paris (August 1928), and then their number has increased to 65
. The U.S. Senate ratified the pact with one voice against, the text called 'international kiss'.
For the role played by them in the preparation of the Paris Pact, K. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1929. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Johan Movinkel in his opening speech noted that although many countries have expressed reservations regarding the Paris Pact, its importance is much wider than a purely political. 'I know no more important work for humanity than the cause of peace - said to. in reply. - There is no short and easy road, there is no panacea for ills of mankind made to suffer from the very beginning of its history '. Nobel lecture to. not presented, but at a banquet assured the gathering that 'no state, is more interested in peace than the United States'.
In the same year. took the place of the late Charles Evans Hughes in the International Court in The Hague. His duties, he served until 1935, when he retired from illness. Stricken with paralysis, he died of pneumonia on Dec. 21, 1937, shortly before his death he handed over half a million dollars in the Carleton College for research in the field of international relations.
Although during his lifetime to. It was clear that the pact Kellogg - Briand will not be able to prevent the war itself to. looked to the future with optimism. Exposed in the State Department criticized for indecisiveness and stubbornness at the same time, K. nevertheless famous for his diplomacy. 'Reflecting on his background, one can not but pay tribute to the flexible policy AK - writes his biographer Robert Ferrell - his willingness to listen to advice, how to approach the diplomatic problems with prudence and rare common sense'.