KING (King), Martin Luther( American priest and fighter for civil rights of the Nobel Peace Prize, 1964)
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Biography KING (King), Martin Luther
January 15, 1929, Mr.. - April 4, 1968
American priest and a fighter for civil rights Martin (originally Michael) Luther King was born in Atlanta (Georgia), the son of a pastor of the Baptist church, he was the eldest son. When the boy was six years old, his father changed his own name and on Martin. K. Dam, Alberta Christine Williams, before her marriage taught in school. Childhood to. accounted for during the Great Depression, but he grew up in prosperous middle-class family.
While studying in primary school, David T. Howard High School and Booker T. Washington, K. significantly ahead of their peers, t. to. program was self. In 1944, without finishing high school, he passed the exam and entered Morehouse College in Atlanta for color. Then he became a member of the National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAPTSN). In 1947, Mr.. K. ordained a priest and became assistant to his father in the church. After graduating from college with a BA in sociology in 1948, K. enrolled in a theological seminary Krozera in Chester (Pa.), and in 1951. received her bachelor's degree in theology. Designated scholarship enabled him to attend graduate school at Boston University, where in 1955. K. defended his thesis on 'A comparative analysis of concepts of God in the systems of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Vimena', becoming a doctor of philosophy. Profound influence on K. in those years had a priest and the reformist writings of Walter Raushenbusha, Georg Hegel, Henry Thoreau, Edgar Brightman, Paul Tillich and Reinhold Niebuhr. 'Attempts to create a social gospel, - said K. - witness of Christian life'. In 1953, Mr.. K. married student Coretta Scott, they had two sons and two daughters.
Priest, a Baptist church on Dexter Avenue in Montgomery (Alabama) K. began in 1954, performing there duties until January 1960, when re-united with his father in Ebinizerskoy Church. In Montgomery's. organized social action committees, raising funds for NAPTSN, being members of the local executive committee of this association.
. After the incident with Rosa Park (seamstress, was arrested for refusing to give way to a white passenger on a bus) in December 1955
. in Montgomery created the Association of improvement, and King becomes its president. Keeping doubts about the justification for the boycott people of color bus transport Montgomery, K. hesitated whether he should accept this post, and I agreed, remembering a quote from Thoreau: 'Cooperate with the vicious system is no longer possible'. By the evening of December 5. gave decisive, as he later recalled it in his life. 'Resistance is no alternative' - said to. assembled and expressed confidence that the protest will help get rid 'of the patient, to induce him to accept less than freedom and justice'. Under the direction of K. black community boycotted the Montgomery Transportation 382 days. In November 1956,. U.S. Supreme Court declared the law of segregation in Alabama to be unconstitutional. In December, black and white for the first time used a bus together. K. gained national notoriety in February 1957. His portrait appeared on the cover of 'Time'.
The civil rights movement in the mid-XX. To which he joined K., rooted more in the prewar years. NAPTSN and the Congress of Racial Equality, labor leaders such as A. Philip Randolph, have taken several steps in favor of equality of Negroes. The culmination of their achievements was the process of 1954. 'Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka'. The Supreme Court put an end to segregation in education, finding that segregation of black and white creates inequality and, therefore, contrary to the 14 th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
Unique contribution to. the cause of human rights made it possible for his commitment to the principles of Christian philosophy. An example for a K. considered the activities of Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the movement of passive resistance, due to which India freed itself from British rule. 'The philosophy of nonviolent resistance of Gandhi - said to. once - the only method, justified in the fight for freedom '.
The boycott in Montgomery, during which the house to. was blown up, and he was arrested, made him the hero of the black community in the U.S.. In January 1957, Mr.. Southern black leaders have created a union of church organizations for civil rights under the name 'Southern Christian Leadership Conference' (KRHYU), where K. was elected. At the same time, K., recognized defender of the rights of Colored People, wrote a book 'A Step to Freedom. The story of Montgomery '(' Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story '). In September 1958, with autograph in Harlem, he was stabbed in the chest with a mentally ill woman.
Using KRHYU as a base, K. organized a series of campaigns for civil rights, aimed at the destruction of segregation in transportation, theaters, restaurants, etc.. He traveled throughout the country, lecturing, and 15 times arrested. In 1960, Mr.. at the invitation of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, he spent a month in India, which has deepened acquaintance with the activities of Gandhi. In March - April 1963. K. led mass demonstrations in Birmingham (Alabama) against segregation in the workplace and at home, one of the slogans was the establishment of committees of citizens of different races. Police dispersed the demonstrators (many of whom were children), with dogs, water cannons and truncheons.
For violations of the ban on demonstrations to. was arrested on 5 days. At this time he wrote a 'Letter from Birmingham jail "white religious leaders of the city, which reproached him for his' unwise and untimely action'. 'In fact, time has no meaning - wrote to. - The progress of humanity is not rolling on wheels inevitability. It comes as a result of the tireless efforts of people who create the will of God, without whom time is an ally of the forces of stagnation in the society '. Despite periodic outbreaks, the tension eased in Birmingham, where white and black leaders have reached agreement on desegregation.
In 1963, Mr.. K. together with his deputy, Ralph Abernathy, founder of the Congress of Racial Equality Bayard Rustinom and other leaders organized the largest demonstration in U.S. history for civil rights. August 28, about 250 thousand. blacks and whites gathered in Washington, when the U.S. Congress discussed legislation on civil rights. The same day, black leaders conferred with President John F. Kennedy. Later on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to. speech, in which it expressed faith in the brotherhood of man, it became widely known as the 'I Have a Dream' - these words sound like a refrain in the text of the speech.
Book By. 'Why we can not wait' ( 'Why We can't wait') was published in 1964. In May - June of the same year. with members of KRHYU participated in demonstrations for integration of the housing stock, held in Saint Ogastene (Florida). A month later he was president Lindh B. Johnson invited him to the White House, where K. witnessed the signing of a bill of dwellings, which became part of the law 1964. Civil Rights. The law forbade segregation in public places and at work, working conditions and wages. At the end of the year to. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
In his opening speech, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gunnar Yang said: 'Although Martin Luther King was not involved in international affairs, his struggle is the cause of peace ... In the western world he was the first who showed that the struggle does not necessarily imply violence '.
In his Nobel lecture to. said: "Nonviolence means that my people all these years patiently endured suffering, not inflicting them on others ... This means that we do not feel more fear. But this does not mean that we want to scare one or other or even the society of which we are. The motion does not seek to liberate Negroes at the expense of the humiliation and enslavement of white. It does not want a victory over anyone was. It wants the release of American society and participation in self-liberation of the people '.
In March 1965, Mr.. K. organized a march from Selma (Alabama) in Montgomery under the slogan of providing voting rights, but he did not take part in the march. After the demonstrators were attacked by the traffic police, K. called for a new march. It was attended by more than 3 thousand. black and white demonstrators, and more than 25 thousand. joined him on the road. The walls of the Capitol in Montgomery, speaking to the crowd turned to. August 6, President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act, K. was invited to Washington, and attended the signing ceremony.
Being controversial figure, K. had many enemies - not only in the south, but also in other parts of the country. The most influential critic of K. was, apparently, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Edgar Hoover, who called him a Communist, a traitor and profoundly immoral man. When K. FBI agents accused of not taking action on complaints Olbeni (Ga.), explaining that their southern origin, Hoover did not hesitate to call the black figure 'most notorious liar in the country'. The FBI tapped phones to. and KRHYU, has gathered an extensive dossier on the personal and public life to. In it, in particular, reflected extramarital affairs to. while traveling around the country.
In 1967. K. published the book 'Where do we go otsyudaN' ( 'Where do We go from hereN'). In April, he openly opposed the Vietnam War. K. sent a message to the large anti-war rally in Washington, became co-chairman of the organization 'priests and lay people, alarmed by events in Vietnam'.
In recent years, attention to life. was drawn not only to racism, but also to the problem of unemployment, hunger and poverty across America. Expanding horizons necessitated support the radical circles of black youth during a riot in the ghetto, Watts, Newark, Harlem and Detroit, which contradicted the principles of nonviolence. K. became aware that racial discrimination is closely linked to poverty. But the program on the subject, he did not have time to create, which explains the failure of efforts to improve living conditions in the slums of Chicago in 1966. However, in November 1967. K. announced the beginning of the campaign of poor people, which was completed in April 1968,. collection of black and white poor in Washington.
March 28, 1968, Mr.. K. 6 thousandth led a protest march in downtown Memphis (Tennessee), whose goal was to support the striking workers. A few days later, speaking in Memphis, TO. said: 'We have a difficult time. But it does not matter. Because I've been on top of the mountain ... I looked ahead and saw the Promised Land. Maybe I'll be there with you, but I want you to know now - we all, all the people will see this land '. The next day. was wounded by a sniper while standing on the balcony of a motel in Memphis 'Lorraine'. From the wounds he died in hospital of Saint Joseph and was buried in Atlanta.
Activities to. Center continues to study and non-violent social change the name of Martin Luther King Jr. in Atlanta. In 1983. U.S. Congress rejected a proposal to celebrate the birthday. the third Monday in January. However Jan. 16, 1986, Mr.. bust to. was installed in the Rotunda of the Capitol in Washington - Afro-American, was awarded this honor for the first time. January 20, 1986, Mr.. nation observed the first Martin Luther King Day.