Kissinger (Kissinger), Henry( American political scientist and statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1973)
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Biography Kissinger (Kissinger), Henry
genus. May 27, 1923
American political scientist and statesman, Henry Alfred Kissinger (Heinz Kissinger) was born in the Bavarian town of Fц+rth (Germany). He was the eldest of two sons, Luis Kissinger, female secondary school teachers, and Paula Kissinger (Stern). The boy grew up in an educated middle-class Jewish family, his childhood years were in the revival of Germany after its defeat in World War. Since coming to power of Hitler's government launched a large-scale persecution of the Jews, the father of K. lost jobs. Heinz was expelled from school, and later he was able to go to school for Jews. In 1938. with more stringent policy of anti-Semitism to the family. fled from Germany and then emigrated to the United States, settling in New York.
In 1943, Mr.. graduated from high school named after George Washington's. was drafted into the U.S. Army and became an American citizen. In the military counterintelligence K. served as a translator. After Germany's surrender in 1945. K. worked in the military administration of occupied Germany, for his services he was awarded the Bronze Star.
After the war, to. entered Harvard University where he majored in political science and received in 1950, Mr.. Bachelor. Continue their studies at graduate school, he began in 1952. Master and in 1954. Dr.. Thesis for a peaceful settlement after the victory over Napoleon was published in 1957. called 'Recycled world: Kestlri, Metternich and the problem of appeasement' ( 'A world restored: Castlereagh, Metternich and the Problems of Peace').
Invited to work at Harvard, K. worked at the Faculty of Management and the Center for International Studies. Despite the fact that K. considered constrained and alienated man, his course on international politics, enjoyed great popularity among students. In 1959, Mr.. He was appointed Associate Professor of Management and in 1962. - Professor. From 1959 to 1969. he led the Harvard Program for Defense Studies.
At Harvard, K. gained considerable credibility in matters of foreign policy and strategic defense. One of his colleagues, the American historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., recommended him for the post of director of research programs at the Council on Foreign Relations. As a result, the 18-month study to. presented a paper 'Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy' (1957), which examined alternative strategies for large-scale nuclear retaliation, formulated by Secretary of State John F. Dulles. K. developed the idea of 'flexible response', which included the possible use of tactical nuclear weapons. The study brought to. Award of the Woodrow Wilson and attracted the attention of Nelson Rockefeller, who appointed academic director of special research project at the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. Publication end of 50-ies. To establish. reputation as a consistent anti-communist, suspicious of the prospects for detente.
When the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower K. acted as a consultant Coordinating Board (1955 ... 1956) and the group evaluation of weapon systems at the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1955 ... 1960). Despite differences with President John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, he continued to work the consultant, now in the National Security Council (1961 ... 1963), the Agency for Arms Control and Disarmament (1961 ... 1967) and the Department of State (1965 ... 1967).
. At the invitation of Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam, to
. visited the country in 1965, shortly after the U.S. began bombing North Vietnam. Two years later, when the Johnson administration studied the prospects for agreement in Vietnam to. within four months of exchange of letters between the U.S. and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). As a result of his efforts in 1968. Paris began peace talks. In the same year. was an adviser to Nelson Rockefeller during his unsuccessful attempt to become the presidential candidate of the Republican Party.
In 1968. K. accepted the offer of cooperation of the new president, Richard M. Nixon. In January next year, he designed the vacation at Harvard and was appointed Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, in his responsibilities included consultation on international and military policy. K. Nixon helped to formulate the so-called Vietnamization policy, under which American troops gradually replaced by the South Vietnamese. At the same time to. advocated the continuation of bombing North Vietnam and air raids against North Vietnamese communications in Cambodia. This controversial strategy was designed to strengthen the U.S. position in negotiations with Vietnam.
In 1970 ... 1971. K. made 12 trips to Paris for secret negotiations with North Vietnamese representatives. January 27, 1973, Mr.. it reached agreement on a cease-fire with North Vietnamese leader Le Duc Tho. It was agreed that the U.S. withdraw its troops while maintaining military supplies to South Vietnam. In response, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam has committed to release all American prisoners of war. K. and Le Duc Tho were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1973. Selection of the Nobel Committee has caused mixed reactions, two of its members even resigned. K. not present at the ceremony, but in Oslo held a protest when the American ambassador arrived to receive the award on behalf of K.
The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Ose Liones in his speech touched upon this criticism. 'The Committee is aware that in Paris it was not a peace agreement, but only a cease-fire - she said. - We understand that the world did not come to Vietnam and the suffering of the Vietnamese people did not end. Events in this country is still threatened by the world discharge. The cease-fire - only the first, but incredibly important step on the difficult road of peace in Vietnam '. Liones added: "In awarding the prize 1973. two politicians who were in the center of events, the Nobel Committee stressed its belief that the decision of many dangerous conflicts lies in the way of negotiations, rather than all-out war until victory. "
Turning to the Nobel committee to. wrote: 'The people of the United States and the world, shares the hope that all parties perceive a moral duty in the early transition from cease-fire in Vietnam for an extended peace for the suffering people of Indochina. My Government, for its part intends to conduct policy in such a way as to turn this dream into reality '. The last American troops were withdrawn from Vietnam March 29, 1973
As the chief adviser on foreign affairs to President Nixon. has initiated negotiations on limiting strategic arms (SALT). Two years later he played a prominent role in the negotiations, which resulted in the Soviet Union has opened access to West Berlin in exchange for recognition of East Germany. In the summer of 1971. K. had an informal meeting in Beijing with Premier Zhou Enlai to the preparation of Nixon's visit to China, scheduled for February 1972
When Nixon again won the presidential election, he appointed to. Secretary of State. During the outbreak in 1973. Israel's war with Egypt and Syria to. made several visits to seven Middle Eastern capitals, trying to put an end to bloodshed. This diplomacy, . known as 'shuttle', . led to a ceasefire between Israel and Egypt, . resumption of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Egypt in full, . the opening of the Suez Canal and the signing of the Israeli-Syrian disengagement agreement in May 1974,
. Following the removal from power of President Nixon during the Watergate scandal to
. remained Secretary of State in the administration of President Gerald R. Ford until 1977, Mr.. Then he left government service and began teaching at the Institute of International Relations at Georgetown University. Conducting scientific work and lecturing, K. is a member of the Academic Council of the Aspen Institute and serves a private consultant on television and in the business world.
To. married in 1949. Ann Fleischer, despite the birth of a son and daughter, in 1964. family split up, K. married Nancy Medzhinnes, former assistant to Nelson Rockefeller.
To. is a trustee of the Metropolitan Museum in New York and a board member of Haustonskogo Ballet. He is also a member of the American Political Science Association and the Association of the United States Army. K. awarded Guggenheim and the Award of the American Institute of Public Affairs (1973), an honorary doctoral degree at Brown University and other awards.
'Fizikal Review leters' ( 'Physical Review Letters').
Study, published K. in 1980, is notable for at least three respects. First, it showed that the effects of quantum theory, is most often seen in the behavior of microscopic quantities, such as individual electrons can be observed in measurements of electrical current in a laboratory scale. Secondly, the observed effect was a complete surprise for theoretical physicists for decades engaged in the study of semiconductors. Third, the quantum Hall effect was allowed to obtain the results, reproduced with such precision that they once led to the idea of a new international standard unit of electrical resistance - Ohm.
. For the discovery of the quantum Hall effect to
. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1985. In view of the Royal Swedish Academy noted that the work to. 'opened up a new area of research is vital not only for theory but for applications ... We are dealing here with a new phenomenon in quantum physics, with the phenomenon, the characteristics of which are understood only partially. "
. Accuracy and reproducibility, which can be measured by the quantum Hall effect, make it a phenomenon whose significance goes far beyond the metrology and physics of semiconductor devices
. As measured by the unit of resistance depends only on the most fundamental constants of nature, the resulting K. result is important for many other areas of physics. For example, the fine structure of emission spectra of hot gases is determined by the same combination of fundamental constants, and that the quantum Hall effect. Thus, the measured Hall resistance has become cumbersome test of the correctness of theoretical calculations, the predicted values of the fine structure constant of atomic spectroscopy.
In some respects, the opening of the quantum Hall effect to. can compare with the phenomenon of superconducting tunneling predicted two decades earlier by Brian D. Josephson. Both effects make it possible to observe in a laboratory experiment, the quantum mechanical behavior, usually a limited system of atomic dimensions. Both effects led to the establishment of new absolute standards of electrical quantities - in the Josephson volt and ohm in the case of the quantum Hall effect. By Portfolio. are of particular importance, because they stimulated the study of electrons, effectively limited two-dimensional space. Many new phenomena discovered in subsequent years, and new problems arising in the physics of electronic layers, largely due to its remarkable appearance of the observations made to. in 1980
In 1971, Mr.. K. married Renate Falkenberg, and they had two sons and a daughter. In addition to the Nobel Prize he was awarded Walter-Schottky Germanskogo Physical Society (1981) and Hewlett Packard Prize of the European Physical Society (1982).