Le Duc Tho (Le Duc Tho)( Vietnamese politician and Nobel Peace Prize, 1973)
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Biography Le Duc Tho (Le Duc Tho)
genus. October 14, 1911
Vietnamese politician Le Duc Tho was born in the province Namkhai, in northern Vietnam, his real name, according to some reports, Phan Dinh Khai. During his childhood, Vietnam, as the whole of Indochina, was under French control. As the father of L. was serving in the colonial administration, his children could get an education. Sam L. studied at radiotelegrafista.
Youth L. occurred in the years of struggle against French colonial rule in Vietnam, and in 1928. He took part in the revolutionary movement of young people. Then he took the pseudonym Le Duc Tho. L. head is not always peaceful demonstrations against the French in 1930. young radicals, including some LA, under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh founded the Communist Party of Indochina. In the same year, L. was sentenced to forced labor on a prison island Paulo Condor (now Con Son). After his release in 1936. he headed the communist North Vietnamese News Agency in the city of Nam Dinh. At that time, the Vietnamese communists with the support of the Soviet Union and China fought a guerrilla war against the French. Since the beginning of the Second World War in 1939. L. again went to prison, this time in Nam Dinh. 'Anger took me up to fight the barbarians, imperialists, - wrote L. the camera. - How old is someone else's heels trample our land! "
For information about L. in these years are contradictory. Report its opinion to the sleepy, near the Chinese border for most of the period of Japanese occupation (1940 ... 1945). According to other sources in 1940. He fled to China and a year later helped create the Ho Chi Minh Viet Minh - a broad coalition of communist and non-communist groups, aimed at the withdrawal of the Japanese occupation forces and the independence of Vietnam.
At the end of the war L. served in several key committees of the Communist Party of Indochina. After the Japanese surrender in 1945. Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam's independence and became president of the new state. L. joined the Government and the Standing Committee of the Communist Party. When in 1946. France tried to regain control over Vietnam, the liberation war resumed. L. became deputy secretary of the Communist Party in the south of Vietnam, where revolutionary activities directed. After eight years of Viet Minh guerrilla war inflicted a defeat in Dien Bien Phu the French troops, who soon left Vietnam.
. International Conference, held in Geneva (Switzerland) in 1954, announced the Geneva conventions that set that up to general elections 1956
. Vietnam is divided demarcation line on the 17 th parallel. Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) in the north led by Ho Chi Minh City, Republic of Vietnam in the south - the former Emperor Bao Dai. Returning to North Vietnam in 1955, L. became a member of the Politburo had just reorganized WPV. By 1960, Mr.. He was elected secretary of the Central Committee and took his place among the most powerful North Vietnamese leaders.
According to the stories, A. took a tough stance in uniting the country and soon renewed the war between North and South Vietnam. In 1956, . when the new leader of South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem refused to participate in general elections, . appointed in accordance with the Geneva Agreements, . National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Viet Cong) began a guerrilla war against the government,
. Although the Viet Cong were submitted to different areas, dominated by the Communists in it. In the late 50's and early 60-ies. Alarmed by the danger of the communist coup of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy provided the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem's growing military and economic support. In the mid 60-ies. Administration Lyndon B. Johnson carried out in South Vietnam, direct military intervention. It is believed that L. North Vietnam was a supporter of participation in this conflict, but its role in military policy to nothing is known. According to The New York Times' in 1967. L. responsible for control of the South. His strategy of full integration is open to criticism of other members of the party, so that in 1972. he had to 'clean campaign', thousands of his opponents were executed.
Meanwhile, faced with internal opposition to the Vietnam War, in 1968,. President Johnson instructed to negotiate a cease-fire. The talks began in Paris on 13 May and 3 June as a special adviser to have participated L. After the inauguration of President Richard M. Nixon talks were extended, they were joined by representatives of South Vietnam and the Viet Cong. As a result, the chances of success significantly decreased. As a condition of the cease-fire North Vietnam demanded the withdrawal of U.S. troops and replacing the regime of Nguyen Van Thieu (successor of Ngo Dinh Diem) interim government with the Communists. At the same time L. and Henry Kissinger started on 4 August 1969. secret talks in Paris. Kissinger wrote about L. in his memoirs: "He came to take me into submission. As a representative of 'the world of truth', he saw no need to compromise '. Secret talks dragged on for three years, and neither side wanted to make concessions.
Finally L. and Kissinger had reached an agreement which was signed January 27, 1973, Mr.. DRV recognized the sovereignty of the Thieu government in areas held by the South Vietnamese troops, the National Reconciliation Council was to organize elections. For its part, the U.S. agreed to withdraw troops, other articles provide for exchange of prisoners and the monitoring of the ceasefire by the Quadripartite Commission. At a press conference h. said: 'Over the centuries, Vietnam was unified and indivisible. Vietnamese people in the South and the North seeks not merely to the peaceful resolution of the conflict, but to restore the unity of the motherland '.
L. and Kissinger were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1973. in recognition of their services in connection with the truce. In his speech, Ose Liones, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee has recognized that the 'cease-fire - only the first, but incredibly important step on the difficult road of peace in Vietnam'. She noted also that 'negotiators were fundamentally different systems - the western and communist. We do not believe that the differences in the systems and ideologies should be ignored, but the Nobel committee wanted to emphasize that in the community aspirations for peace, one can not impose its system by force of arms. The people who have different management systems should be able to live in peace and to resolve their differences through negotiations. "
Award 1973. caused the most contradictory judgments in the history of the Nobel Committee. Two members of the committee in protest resigned, the reaction of the international press has also been largely critical. Refused to award himself L., vilified the United States and South Vietnam in violation of the Paris Agreements.
The alert public is primarily a result of the fact that the ceasefire did not take place. Although American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973, civil war in Vietnam continued to claim hundreds of lives. In January 1975. began a long-awaited Communist offensive in South. In April, Saigon government collapsed and a year later, on July 2, 1976, North and South united under the name of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. L. retained his seat in the Politburo.
In the late 70-ies. high positions in the party have younger brothers L. A cousin. Nguyen Duc Tam took his place at the head of the central orgotdela. Such manifestations of nepotism have caused concern in the higher echelons of power. In December 1986. it was announced that A. relieved of his duties as a member of the Politburo.
About personal life L. little information. The newspapers reported that he had been married twice. According to The New York Times' way of life L. characterized by 'asceticism and strict morality, and mandatory in the Vietnamese revolutionary ethics'. Pleasant man five feet eight inches tall, with gray hair, the talks he gave the impression of calm, seriousness and dedication. Henry Kissinger once said about him as a person 'is always restrained', with impeccable manners, whose 'great shining eyes only occasionally expressed fanaticism, which made his 16-year-old boys to join the communist guerrillas'.