MONETA (Moneta), Ernesto( Italian journalist and supporter of world Nobel Peace Prize, 1907)
Comments for MONETA (Moneta), Ernesto
Biography MONETA (Moneta), Ernesto
September 20, 1833, Mr.. - 10 February 1918
Italian journalist and supporter of peace Ernesto Teodoro Moneta was born in Milan, the third of eleven children in an aristocratic family of Charles Aurelio coin and Giuseppina Muzio. By the time of birth M. affairs of the family have declined. Education he received in high schools and Parini di Brera in Milan, since 1713, Mr.. which was under Austrian domination. In 1848, Mr.. with his father and brothers M. participated in an unsuccessful uprising against Austria, after its suppression, fearing for his life, he fled to the independent kingdom of Piedmont. Here M. entered the military academy and joined the secret society, which maintained contacts with Italian nationalists in Milan.
Since the beginning in 1859, Mr.. Piedmontese war against Austria M. and four of his brothers joined the army of Giuseppe Garibaldi, and participated in the battle of Volturno in Calabria; soon M. offered to serve in the headquarters. After the defeat of Italy to Custozza (1866), Moscow, disorder disappointed in the Army, resigned and took up journalism.
Based in Milan, M. began to write articles for the daily newspaper 'The Age' ( 'II Secolo'). A year later, two friends M. bought a newspaper and asked him to become editor in chief. This position he retained 28 years. Under his leadership, 'The Age' has become a leading Italian newspaper, listened to the opinion that in intellectual circles.
On the pages of 'Age' M. expressed authoritative judgments on domestic and international policies. Being a Catholic, he often printed articles anticlerical, t. to. believed that the criticism of the church for the advancement and unification of Italy.
Sympathetic army, he played for its reduction: the National Guard, in his opinion, is far cheaper to taxpayers and less prone to militarism. With all my heart supporting the idea of nationalism, M. however, warned readers against excessive hatred of Austria, although he himself was an advocate of rapprochement with France.
In 1874,. M. married Ercilla Kalo, who died in 1899. They had two sons.
Article M. 70-ies. reflect his growing interest in the problems of peace. In 1878, Mr.. He attended Milan's Peace Conference, nine years later was among the founders of the Lombard alliance for peace and arbitration, which gave the entire proceeds of the commemorative issue dedicated to the 20 th anniversary of the newspaper 'The Age'. To disseminate information about the movement for peace in 1880. M. began to publish the almanac 'another world' ( "L'amico della race"). Five years later he became the Italian representative of the International Peace Bureau.
In 1896, after finishing one of the most brilliant careers in Italian journalism, M. resigned his leadership of 'The Age', although it continued to cooperate with this newspaper. Two years later he founded the 'International Life' ( "La vita Internationale"), which has won high reputation in articles to the Peace and Arbitration. Lighting in her Franco-Italian relations, supposedly created a climate of confidence that made in 1903. possible arbitration treaty between the two states.
For his tireless work for peace M. received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1907, which is shared with Louis Renault. 'We attach great importance to appearances in the press and at meetings, contributing to an understanding between France and Italy', - said in his speech Jorgen Levlann, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
Illness prevented M. attend the awards ceremony. Nobel lecture he gave in French in Oslo two years later. His speech was dedicated to the theme 'Peace and the right in the Italian tradition', which traced the relationship between the Italian nationalism and the quest for universal freedom. 'Pacifism does not seek to smooth out the differences between peoples in a boiling pot of cosmopolitanism, - said M. - wanting only to bring them into conformity with the requirements of justice'. M. reaffirmed its conviction that peace and justice are not an illusion. 'Reasonable ideas that nourish the consciousness of justice, not dying, - said M. - They are real and active force, if those who profess to know how to breathe life into them '. Since M. saw no contradiction between people's struggle for self-governance and the strengthening of international relations, the choice of him as a Nobel laureate has caused in certain circles, negative reaction.
After 1900. M. spent much time in Italy, here he underwent several eye operations, but the development of glaucoma could not stop. Almost blind in his later years, M. remains active in politics and journalism. He supported the annexation of Libya by Italy in 1911. and Italy's entry into World War I, t. to. protested against the aggressive policies of Germany and Austria. "As an Italian I can not stay ... [Battle of], - said M. in 1918. - I must participate in the life of the country, sharing her joy and her sorrow mourning '.
In addition to countless newspaper articles and pamphlets M. wrote a four-volume study of 'war, insurrection and peace in the XIX century' ( "Le guerre, le insurrezioni e la pace nel secolo XIX"), saw the light in 1903 ... 1910.
Pneumonia, M. died in Milan on Feb. 10, 1918, Mr.. the age of 88.