Myrdal (Myrdal), Alva( Swedish sociologist and social activist Nobel Peace Prize, 1982)
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Biography Myrdal (Myrdal), Alva
January 31, 1902, Mr.. - February 1, 1986
Swedish sociologist and public figure, Alva Myrdal was born in Uppsala, the son of a construction contractor Albert Reimer and lovy Larson. Raised in a socially active family of petty Alva always been interested in the affairs of his father, a member of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, which at that time were organized by workers' cooperatives.
. A course of sociology, philosophy, psychology and pedagogy of the school at Stockholm University, M
. he graduated in 1924. with a bachelor. In the same year she married the economist Gunnar Myrdal, the practice of law in Stockholm. The family had two daughters and a son: Sissel Bok, who became world-renowned philosopher and writer (lives in USA), sociologist Kai Felster, writer and politician Jan Myrdal.
Three years M. studied in London, Leipzig and Stockholm. At the Rockefeller Foundation scholarship M. her husband traveled to the U.S. in 1929 ... 1930., then studied in Geneva in 1930 ... 1931., and in 1934. received a master's degree at Uppsala University. At the same time she published a joint study with her husband 'The crisis in the problem of population' ( 'Kris i befolkningsfragan'), which brought her international fame in demography.
In 30-ies. Swedish Social Democrats have reached such an impact that we were able to implement major social reforms. Book spouses Myrdal suggested the government decision to ensure the welfare of all children, regardless of financial status of their parents. As co-author and a recognized scholar M. was appointed to the Cabinet Committee on housing. In 1935. she became an advisor of the Royal Commission on Population, and a year later founded the Institute of Education pre-school education and was its director until 1948, Mr.. In 1946, Mr.. reputation as supporters of progressive teaching methods led to her appointment to the Royal Commission on Education Reform, M. also became Chairman of the World Council of preschool education.
In those same years, M. played a leading role in the movement for political and economic equality of Swedish women. As executive secretary of the State Commission on Women's Labor M. 1935 ... 1938. edited the monthly magazine for women - members of the Social Democratic Party. As vice-chairman of the Stockholm organization of business and working women in 1935 ... 1936. she wanted to meet the challenges of feminism, especially in the economic sphere, rather than political or psychological. Gradually M. grown to international levels. In 1938 ... 1947. she was vice-president of the International Federation of Business and working women. In the framework of the International Federation of University staff member M. prepared a report on the employment of married women.
During the Second World War, when Sweden's neutrality has caused in this country an influx of refugees, M. became vice-chairman of the Joint Committee of the Swedish civil society organizations for cultural aid to Europe. After the war, she edited the weekly 'Swedish way' ( 'Via Suecia'), which, coming in many languages, was to contribute to the rapid assimilation of the refugees.
In 1946, Mr.. M. represented Sweden at the Paris Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). A year later she became a consultant of the project 'International understanding through schools', which is funded by the Department of Social Sciences of UNESCO. Three years later, M. was appointed director of the department of social problems of the UN. In this position, she coordinated projects relating to human rights, freedom of information, the status of women, drug abuse, rapid population growth. 'For men and women capable of thinking of the international category, - said M. one reporter - social ills are as real and urgent, as the political and economic problems'.
Being a member of the Social Democratic Party, M. at that time played a discreet role in its affairs, while working on the committee which drew up the postwar policy of the party, and besides, it was represented at the Paris conference of the International Labor Organization in 1945. However, in 1955. M. was appointed Swedish Ambassador to India, although the decision provoked criticism in the business circles of Sweden, where the socialist views M. wary. Organizational skills M. earned her a deep respect of the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the entire Indian people.
Returning to Sweden in 1961, M. became a special assistant to Foreign Minister for Disarmament Affairs, in connection with what she had to study in depth the problem. Selected in 1962. in the Swedish Parliament, she headed the Swedish delegation at the Geneva UN Conference on Disarmament. As a minister without portfolio M. remained in government from 1966 to 1973
Adhering to the anti-war views, in 1977. M. published an important essay: 'The game of disarmament: how the United States and Russia are fanning the arms race' ( 'The Game of Disarmament: How the United States and Russia run the arms races'), . which sharply criticized the two superpowers to spend huge sums, . that could go to health, . housing and education,
. Peace Prize was awarded the Albert Einstein in 1980. M. expressed concern about the climate of despair, which 'has a devastating effect on the youth daily threat of war'. However M. noted that he had never yielded to his desire to leave their duties.
In 1982, Mr.. 'for achievements in disarmament' M. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982, which is shared with Alfonso Garcia Robles. 'But more needs to be done' - tagged M. in his Nobel lecture. Noting the rapid growth of nuclear arsenals in the U.S. and the USSR, M. stated: 'War - the killing. And those military preparations which are underway, aimed at the collective murder. In the nuclear age of the victim will be millions'. In conclusion, M. reminded the audience that over the past 100 years of peace congresses were not carried out - since the will of Alfred Nobel was established Peace Prize. She called to hold the conference in the future.
Supporters of reforms in the spirit of the tradition of European democratic socialism, M. beginning of his way to the peace movement at subnational level. After the entry of Sweden to the UN care M. equality and social justice has risen to a new level. Most disturbing, she was the arms race. Although M. very proud of Sweden's refusal to renounce nuclear weapons in 1968, she has repeatedly expressed its disappointment that, despite years of negotiations, the arms race is accelerating and the 'militarization of the economy and national life of almost all countries increases. "
. Heart Disease in the last two years of his life imprisoned M
. Stockholm hospital, where she died on February 1, 1986