Noel-Baker (Noel-Baker), Philip( English pacifist and diplomat, Nobel Peace Prize, 1959)
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Biography Noel-Baker (Noel-Baker), Philip
November 1, 1889, Mr.. - October 8, 1982
English pacifist and diplomat, Philip John Noel-Baker was born in London, the son of Canadians, where, apart from him, it was still six children. His name Baker, he changed in 1923, after her marriage to Irene Noel. His father, Joseph Allen Baker, was sent to London to open a branch of family engineering firm, and remained in this city forever. Joseph and his wife Elizabeth (nee Moskrip) were Quakers and took an active part in public life. Gradually, Joseph became interested in politics and became a member of London County, where he remained for 11 years, in 1905. He was elected a member of the House of Commons from the Liberal Party. AN-B. grew up in a family where political activity is organically combined with the traditional Quaker pacifism.
Receiving secondary education in Buthemskoy school in York, N.-B. studied later in Heverfordskom College in Pennsylvania (STA), the Royal College (Cambridge, England), where he enjoyed the differences in history and economics (1910 ... 1912). Being an outstanding athlete, NM-B. led the Cambridge Athletic Club for two years, participated in the Olympic Games 1912, 1920, 1924 and 1928., and in 1920,. won a silver medal in the 1500 m.
After receiving a master's degree at Cambridge in 1913, NM-B. became Deputy Director Raskinskogo College, Oxford. In accordance with the Quaker attitude to the war NM-B. during the First World War, organized and led the field hospital. He was in the midst of military action in France, was awarded for bravery. Later he became an adjutant in the British medical unit in Italy and was awarded the Italian Military Cross and the British silver medal "For military prowess'. AN-B. Irene married Noel in 1915, their son Francis was born in 1920
After the war, NM-B. helped Robert Cecil at the Paris Peace Conference, where they jointly defended the project of the League of Nations. The secretariat of the League of NM-B. became Assistant Secretary General. Until 1922. AN-B. was closely linked with the Norwegian scientist and humanist Fridtjof Nansen, who gained international fame through his war-time refugees.
In 1924, Mr.. AN-B. became a professor of international relations at the University of London. Then he made the first attempt to join the ranks of the legislators, speaking from the Labor Party in a conservative district and Birmingham defeated: four years later he entered the Parliament from the district of Coventry.
In 1926, Mr.. AN-B. published two books 'The League of Nations in Action' ( 'The League of Nations at Work') and 'Disarmament' ( 'Disarmament'), which brought him wide recognition as an expert on disarmament. In the British delegation was invited to the 10-th Assembly of the League of Nations. AN-B. served as Secretary Arthur Henderson, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the World Disarmament Conference, held in Geneva in 1932
After P. MacDonald of the Labor Party, NM-B. in 1931. lost his seat in parliament. However, five years later he was re-elected in the constituency in Derby, a member of parliament until his retirement in 1970 he. Alarmed by the growing militancy of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler in the 30-ies. AN-B. approved the sanctions against Italy in response to aggression in Ethiopia, and criticized their own government for pandering to Hitler, and later strongly supported by Winston Churchill, who called for resistance to the threat of fascism.
. As the Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of War Transport in the coalition government, Churchill, NV-B
. conducted the War Department in the House of Commons. When the Labor Party in 1945. formed government, . he became Minister of State, . in this capacity he led the British delegation to the Executive Committee of the Preparatory Commission of the United Nations (UN), . later of the Subcommittee, . who developed the agenda of the Assembly,
. AN-B. was also a member of several committees of this organization.
Despite the congestion in the UN, NM-B. remains active in the British Government, in 1946. He was elected chairman of the Labor Party. As Minister for the Commonwealth, he was directly involved in negotiations on the Granting of Independence to India. When the Conservatives returned to power in 1951, NM-B. become an active participant in the debate in the House of Commons on matters of international policy. Do not leave it to his campaign for disarmament. His book 'The arms race: a program for global nuclear disarmament' ( 'The Arms Race: A Program for World Disarmament', 1958) presented a comprehensive analysis of the history of disarmament negotiations, as well as a number of practical suggestions.
. About N.-B., . award of the Nobel Peace Prize 1959, . spoke as the foremost authority on Disarmament, . whole life have demonstrated their commitment to peace, . tireless leaders of the League of Nations and the UN, . devoting so much of the protection of refugees around the world,
. In his Nobel lecture NM-B. touched on the threat to peace posed by nuclear weapons and the arms race, warned of the way in which 'we becomes accustomed to the idea of using weapons of mass destruction'. The solution is not in the partial measures, argued N.-B., and in a comprehensive and complete disarmament program under the auspices of the UN. 'For every nation disarmament, - he said - is the safest and most practical defense system'.
After being awarded the AN-B. continued to work for peace. After leaving the House of Commons at the age of 80 years, he said: 'While the health and strength permitting, I intend to do everything to disrupt the sweet sleep of those who can continue the arms race'. AN-B. strongly opposed the war in Vietnam. In 1977. He was awarded a life peerage, and received the title of Baron Derby. In 1982, Mr.. AN-B. died in London at the age of 92.