Ossietzky (Ossietzky), Carl von( German writer and pacifist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1935)
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Biography Ossietzky (Ossietzky), Carl von
October 3, 1889, Mr.. - May 4, 1938
Carl von Ossietzky, a German writer and pacifist, was born in Hamburg, the son of a poor merchant who died when the boy was two years. Seven years later, Charles's mother married a Social Democrat Gustav Walter, whose liberal views have affected the outlook on. Few friends of his father expressed a desire to pay for training on. the university, but he refused, intending to become a writer. At the age of twenty he published several poems in Munich editions.
Convinced that the growth of militarism in Germany would lead to war,. in 1912. was among the founders of the Hamburg branch Germanskogo societies of the world. A year later, the liberal weekly 'free people' ( 'Das Freie Volk') published an article by O. criticizing militaristic one sentence from the courts. In this article the author was attacked by the Prussian Ministry of War
August 19, 1913, Mr.. O. married an Englishwoman Maud Woods, feminists, who lived in Hamburg and give lessons in English. The family had a daughter.
In 1916, Mr.. O. was drafted and sent to the trenches east of France, military experience, only strengthened his pacifist beliefs. 'I knew the war as it is not on the books, but in reality - he wrote later,. - What I saw confirmed the correctness of my views on war and weapons. It is worth repeating again and again, that in war there is nothing heroic, it is humanity, only horror and misery. "
After the Armistice, 1918. O. returned to Hamburg, where he resumed his pacifist activities. He became chairman of the local branch Germanskogo society of the world for some time published a newspaper 'Explorer' ( 'Der Wegweiser'). In 1920, Mr.. chairman of the society invited Ludwig Quidde About. to come to Berlin, and become secretary of the organization.
In Berlin, O. published a monthly magazine, was among the founders of the movement 'No war'. Not having to carry out duties in a society of peace, he resigned in 1924 to become foreign editor of 'Berliner folkstsaytung' ( 'Berliner Volkszeitung').
Two years later, on. took over as editor in the newspaper 'World Stage' ( 'Die Weltbuhne'), based Siegfried Jacobson. After his death in 1927. O. was appointed editor in chief. In the same year he published an article by Berthold Jacob, in which the Weimar government was accused of supporting paramilitary. Libel About. was sentenced to imprisonment for a month
Unshakable On. continued to denounce the spirit of militarism, and was distributed in Germany. In May 1929. He published an article by a German pilot Walter Krayzera, in which he exposes the development of military aircraft in violation of the Versailles Treaty. O. and Krayzera arrested for divulging military secrets, but the court was adjourned.
A year later, the National Socialist Party of Adolf Hitler has won 107 seats in the Reichstag - the legislative assembly of Germany. In connection with the Nazi demonstrations against the anti-war film 'On the Western Front' About. said: 'Fascism won its elections ... Today, he killed the film, tomorrow will kill something else '.
On trial. and Krayzerom held in 1931, and after a private meeting, they were both sentenced to 18 months in prison. In connection with the sentence liberal circles organized protests. Among those who defended O. were Ernst Toller, Lion Feuchtwanger, Arnold Zweig, Albert Einstein. In anticipation of a response to an appeal on. Krayzer and kept their passports, which gave them an opportunity to leave Germany; Krayzer traveled to Paris, but the OS, despite requests from friends, refused to leave. 'To deal effectively with the rot can only be inside - he said - and I will not go away'.
In May next year on. Fliess himself came to the prison, where he had to pass through a crowd of admirers, who tried to dissuade him from this decision. After spending seven months in prison, O. was released on Christmas amnesty.
In January 1933,. Hitler became chancellor of Germany, shortly after the Nazis had organized the burning of the Reichstag. Accusing this his political enemies, Hitler launched an attack on democratic institutions and the 'enemies of the state', identifying them and OA, which reached the conclusion, in Berlin, and was then transferred to a concentration camp. Health O., weakened as a result of heart disease and tuberculosis, rapidly deteriorated because of forced labor and poor conditions. According to one of his comrades in the camp, ON. was adopted TB bacillus.
On first. was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1934. Among other petitions on this matter filed Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, James Addams and Bertrand Russell. Mann wrote that the award on. would be a symbolic act of justice. In 1935. did not give awards. Awarded On. next year's prize 'Germanic nearly paralyzed the government'. Germanic ambassador to Norway in this regard expressed outrage, but Foreign Minister replied that the Nobel Committee is independent and not subordinate to the Government.
Notification of award on. received in the prison hospital, where he was transferred from the camp due to a sharp deterioration in health. Given the recent circumstances Germany propaganda claimed that O. free to go to Oslo at any time. However, his passport was not issued, and later started hounding About. traitor. The Government stated that no German will receive the Nobel Prize, and established a system of state prizes.
The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Fredrik Stang in his speech noted that the O. not belong to any political party and is not guided by party prejudices. According to Stang, action on. characterized by 'passionate love for freedom of thought, belief in the need for free competition in all areas of spiritual life, a broad outlook, respect for the values of other peoples and dominant over all this idea of peace'. Stang also stressed that D. not merely 'a symbol of the struggle for peace', but rather a 'defender of peace'.
About. died in a Berlin hospital, 4 May 1938, Mr.. After the Second World War, one of the streets of Berlin was named after him.