PöLrez Esquivel (Peres Esquivel), Adolfo( Argentine sculptor and human rights defender Nobel Peace Prize, 1980)
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Biography PöLrez Esquivel (Peres Esquivel), Adolfo
genus. November 26, 1931
Argentine sculptor and human rights defender, Adolfo PöLrez Esquivel was born in Buenos Aires. His mother died when he was young, his father, Spanish fishermen, who emigrated to Argentina and worked as an agent of the company and the coffee was always in the departure. His upbringing P.E. must first of all the priests of Roman Catholic schools, where he studied.
The boy grew up a pious Catholic, a great influence on him by the books of Mahatma Gandhi, St.. Augustine, Thomas Merton and other philosophers. In his youth he often participated in the discussions and became interested in the application of Gospel truths to contemporary life in South America. At the same time he began to develop his remarkable artistic skills by enrolling in the National School of Fine Arts in Buenos Aires and finished it in 1956. In October the same year he married pianist Amanda Perez, they had three children.
For 15 years P.E. made an enviable career as a sculptor. He began to teach art and architecture at the National School of Fine Arts Manuel Belgrano, and other educational institutions. His work is widely exhibited in Argentina, among other awards P.E. received the prestigious National Award. In his works, he embodied the motives of pre-Columbian America, claiming that he felt 'the need to find in our American roots of the expressive means being able to transmit today's care'. Although P.E. still considered himself apolitical, 'current concerns' increasingly means for him the socio-political disorder in the country.
In the late 40's and early 50-ies. Argentina managed a popular demagogue, dictator Juan Peron, who came to power, being able to attract the poorest workers in unions has established. Through a number of social reforms, he, however, has repeatedly resorted to force and threats to maintain power. His strategy of opposing the working class has caused serious damage to the rest of the Argentine society. After the military coup Perö¨n was exiled in Spain. However, his political organization was preserved, and the situation in Argentina continues to deteriorate, tk. peronistskie unions threatened military and civilian leaders. Repressive government measures forced Peronist and leftist guerrilla groups in the organization, and the violence entailed violence. By the end of the 60-ies. clashes between different political factions led to a democratic constitution that virtually ceased to exist.
In these circumstances P.E. could no longer remain aloof from the social problems. Feeding distrust of the Party organizations, P.E. began to discuss with fellow question of how ordinary Catholics should respond to the deepening social crisis. In 1968. he attended a conference of the Argentine church, university and public organizations in Montevideo (Uruguay), which were considered non-violent ways to improve the situation in Argentina. In 1970. He spent nearly two-month hunger strike to protest against the terror of the Left and Right. During the 2-nd conference in 1971. P.E. Service has established peace and justice, which was to establish cooperation between the socially active Catholic priests and laity to help the poor.
At the end of 1971. P.E. joined other Catholic organization based on Gandhian principles of nonviolence. In urban areas it was to organize craft workshops, embodying the precepts of Gandhi's life in self-reliance of poor. In 1972. he founded the monthly magazine 'Peace and justice' ( 'Paz y lusticia'), which became the official organ of the Service Peace and Justice. Two years later, when the headquarters of the organization moved from Montevideo to Buenos Aires, P.E. became its chief coordinator.
Natural modesty forced P.E. avoid publicity, he preferred to work quietly, building support for peace and justice to the masses. He stopped teaching and has reduced the time available for creative work, for the sake of coordination services in Argentina and travel throughout South America, during which advocated non-violent social change. Convinced that poverty - a problem throughout Latin America, P.E. helped the Indians of Ecuador and Paraguay to defend their own land from encroachment. In Brazil (1975) and Ecuador (1976) he was arrested for criticizing the governments of these countries are unable to make life easier for working people.
Meanwhile, convinced of the impossibility to restore stability and order, in 1973. Argentine government invited Juan Peron to return from Spain. The former dictator was greeted with enthusiasm and was soon elected president, but next year he died. As president, Perö¨n was replaced by his widow, Isabella, in which the economic situation of Argentina has become catastrophic. Also increased the rate of inflation, corruption, facilitated by unfettered, a series of strikes paralyzed the country fully. March 24, 1976, Mr.. army deposed Isabel Peron, declaring martial law. Peronist and left opposed the war, but the government went on the formation of right-wing paramilitary organizations. Thousands of Argentines who sympathized with the left, disappeared, apparently, many of them were killed. Others were tortured, not charged with any wrongdoing, and eventually jailed or executed.
Protesting against the state terrorism, P.E. the risk of their lives began to investigate these disappearances campaign. In 1975. He was among the organizers of the Permanent Assembly of Human Rights, to monitor the activities of the Government. P.E. also established ecumenical movement for human rights, assistance to prisoners and their families that were part of his task, based on the interpretation of P.E. Gospel as a call to action. Quiet, but relentless opposition to the government soon made P.E. target for repression. When he was abroad in 1976, the headquarters of the Service of peace and justice was defeated by the police. In April next year P.E. arrested at a time when he tried to renew his passport.
P.E. spent 13 months in prison, where he not only tried, but not charged. In response to numerous requests the Government laconically reported that P.E. arrested for subversive activities. After his release, he was reluctant to talk about his time in prison, but confirmed that he had been tortured.
During P.E conclusion. as a prisoner of conscience protected 'Amnesty International', Mairead Corrigan and Betty Williams launched his candidacy for the Nobel Prize. Joint efforts (in t.ch. protest of U.S. President Jimmy Carter), drove the Argentine government to release P.E. May 1978. Another nine months he was kept under house arrest, but then was able to resume their activities, in 1980. government finally announced that 'the threat to the left' no longer exists. At the same time P.E. encouraged to begin negotiations with Chile on the territorial dispute.
In 1980. Norwegian Nobel Committee chose P.E. winner of the 57 candidates. In his speech, the representative committee Sandnes spoke of him as a 'tireless explorer of the principle of nonviolence in the struggle for social and political freedom'. 'He vozzheg light in the darkness, which will not let go out'. Among those, . who welcomed the choice of candidate PE, . was a Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov, from exile in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod), he sent a message to the new winner: 'your vigorous struggle for justice and appreciates the support of the oppressed people, . living thousands of miles, . in another world ',
. Most of the amount received from the Nobel Committee, P.E. gave the church and various charities to help the needy in South America.
Nobel Prize attracted P.E. world's attention, which was especially important for the public and diplomatic pressure in favor of 'desaparesidos' - 10 ... 20 thousand. people (estimated PE), disappeared in the late 70-ies. Once again, risking their freedom, P.E. participated in weekly demonstrations of women who sought to draw public attention to the fate of their missing relatives and friends. The demonstrations continued until 1984, when the new government appointed commission found that the illegal repression were 9600 people. Many officers have been prosecuted for these crimes.
Political violence in Argentina after 1984. significantly decreased, but P.E. continued to work to improve the living conditions of the poor and oppressed in Latin America. As argued PE, 'can not talk about human rights only in connection with torture, prisons, executions ... We must think about the peasant who is deprived of land and dies of starvation '.