ROOSEVELT Theodore( Historian, politician and the 26 th U.S. president, Nobel Peace Prize, 1906)
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Biography ROOSEVELT Theodore
October 27, 1858, Mr.. - January 6, 1919
Theodore Roosevelt, historian, politician and the 26 th U.S. president, was born in New York, he was the second of four children merchant glass Theodore Roosevelt and Martha Bullock, the family in no way tolerate the needs of. As a child, suffered from myopia and asthma, the boy began to engage in physical exercise - jogging and boxing. Studied P. from private teachers and in 1880. successfully passed the final exams at the Harvard School Fibeta-kappa. In October the same year he married a native of Massachusetts Hetevey Alice Lee. Over the next year he studied and traveled in Germany
Upon returning to the U.S. F. was elected to the Assembly of the New York State Republican Party. But soon after the birth of daughter Alice Lee (later Longworth), wife of R. died. The inconsolable widow went away from politics for a time lived on the ranch.
Returning to politics in 1886, P. ran for mayoral election, but was defeated. Then he married Edith Kermit Kero and settled on Long Island. In the family were born five children. In those years, P. combined the duties of commissioner of public service USA (1889 ... 1895) and the Police Commissioner of New York (1889 ... 1897). As police commissioner, P. tried to violate the neutrality between the municipality, the police and the underworld. To make sure that his orders are executed, P. wore a black cap and walked in the slums at night, watching the patrol; this manner led to the delight of cartoonists and yielded R. wide popularity.
After President William Mc-Kipli appointed him in 1897. Assistant Secretary for the Navy, P. began to prepare for possible war with Spain. He asked Congress to 1.5 million. dollars on weapons and fuel for the fleet. In February 1898. P., performing the duties of the secretary, gave a secret telegram to Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong with the council to prepare to attack the Spanish fleet in the event of war. With this warning, two months later, Dewey was able to defeat the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. In April 1898. Congress declared war on Spain, where P. the rank of lieutenant colonel, organized volunteer regiment, mostly from among the cowboys, who soon became known as the 'Roosevelt groom'. Sam P. bravely fought near the hill of San Juan and in the Battle of Las Gvasimas.
Returning to the U.S. a national hero, P. put forward his candidacy for governor, a role in his election campaign played a 'groom'. Having won narrowly, P. became governor in January 1899. His new position P. convince legislators to create a commission on the rental and to establish a system of civil service. Local Republicans, alarmed independence P., decided to oust him from the state, advancing the governor to vice-president (traditionally deprived of any power). In 1900, Mr.. R. won the election with President McKinley. However, September 14, 1901, Mr.. McKinley was assassinated, and P. became president, the youngest in U.S. history (he just turned 41). 'Look at that - complained Republican leader Mark Hannah - this damned cowboy - President of the United States'.
P. brought to the White House a dynamic, decisive leadership style, which he used for advocacy. 'I do not usurp the power - he said later - but I greatly expanded the scope of executive power'. R. created a moral leadership, to mobilize public opinion and political action in vylivsheesya. He transformed the federal government in the public interest counsel and arbitrator in the conflict of economic groups. He supervises and controls for the trusts, a very popular move was the case against the 'Northern Securities Company' (railroad cartel), which won the President. Government P. acted as arbitrator in disputes between labor and capital, as, for example, in the coal strike of 1902
In foreign policy, P. is a manifestation of the imperialist sentiments of the era. Convinced that sea power is the basis of America's position in the world, P. be strengthened fleet. He supported a Panamanian revolution against Colombia, which resulted in Panama to establish an independent state, and the U.S. were able to get the Canal Zone for 40 million. U.S.. Within the Caribbean defense strategy P. revised doctrine, formulated by President James Monroe in 1823, Mr.. (Doctrine warned European powers from interfering in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere). According to P., the U.S. should not remain on the sidelines during the economic and political crises in the region, which could leave the fragile American countries vulnerable to the interference of the Europeans.
. With the support of the business world and progressives in 1904
. g. R. was elected president by a majority of 2.5 million. votes. His victory in the elections he interpreted as a mandate for reform. During his second term P. Hepburn had a law on railways, the law on the inspection of meat quality and other. Despite the opposition of industrialists of the West, P. added 148 thousand. acres of national reserves, with the establishment of the National Commission for Conservation began a systematic study of the natural wealth of the country.
In Asia, P. tried to preserve the existing balance of forces. When Japan declared war on Russia in 1904, P. hoped that the Japanese success at sea forced to abstain from Russia's invasion of Manchuria. The complete victory of one side or the other would threaten U.S. interests in the Pacific. In 1905, Mr.. at the request of Japan P. invited the rivals to hold a peace conference in Portsmouth (New Hampshire). When negotiations deadlocked, P. appealed to the governments of both sides to reach a compromise. In September, the Portsmouth Peace put an end to Russian-Japanese War. Although P. did not speak at the conference as U.S. president, he later admitted: 'Only the president, I was able to do something'. For his role in signing the Treaty of Portsmouth P. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1906. Pacifists criticized the decision to award the prize outright militarists, but fans of R. pointed out that, approaching the end of the war, the president has saved thousands of lives.
Because of the strong load P. unable to attend the awards ceremony. However, he visited Oslo in 1910. as an individual and May 5, gave a Nobel lecture. 'Usually the world is good in itself - said R. two thousand gathered - but the highest value it becomes when is justice ... For example, the tyrant believes that he has managed to achieve peace, when he managed to suppress the expression of protest '. R. added: "It would be correct if the great powers formed a League of Peace and observe the world not only themselves, but also prevented the breach thereof, if necessary - even by force '. The money received from the Nobel Committee, was stored until 1917, when P. instructed to transmit them to agencies engaged in assistance to victims of the First World War.
After leaving the White House in March 1909, P. spent some time in Africa, and has lectured at Oxford and the Sorbonne, traveled extensively in Europe. As the gap between conservatives and progressives during the administration of William Howard Taft continued to expand, R. felt obliged to return to politics and ran for the presidential elections in 1912, but was defeated. In the last years of life R. repeatedly ridiculed President Woodrow Wilson for his caution, he opposed U.S. entry into the League of Nations. At the age of 60 years, P. died suddenly during sleep.
P. left an impressive mark in American politics. As a politician, he soon realized the need for reform, organized public opinion and helped legislators to take the necessary decisions. As president, he made extensive use of the possibility of the administration, if necessary, taking strict or moderate solutions. Realizing the danger of concentration of capital, P. supported laws that protect consumers and regulated business. He was a supporter of the wise use of natural resources, speaking from a position of public interest.
In international relations, R. broke with the traditions of American isolationism and initiated diplomatic contacts with the peoples of Asia, Europe and the Caribbean. Historians have often criticized his imperialism during the Spanish-American War, as well as the strong-arm tactics, as manifested during the construction of the Panama Canal. But we should not forget that P. - The first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize, his legislation marked the beginning of the first period of American reform. In the presidential system of governance F. introduced a spirit of confidence, competition and passion, so characteristic of his time.