Anwar Sadat( Egyptian statesman and politician, Nobel Peace Prize, 1978)
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Biography Anwar Sadat
December 25, 1918, Mr.. - October 6, 1981
. Egyptian statesman and political figure, Mohammed Anwar al-Sadat was born in the village of Mit Abu el-Kom in the Nile Delta, he was one of thirteen children of Mohammed al-Sadat, who served in the military hospital, and Sitt al-Barreyn
. All his family were devout Muslims, P. as a child attended a religious elementary school, where he studied the Quran. His fervent belief in Allah affirmed dark callus on his forehead, caused by the frequent bowing during prayers. In 1925, Mr.. family moved to the neighborhood of Cairo, where C. received his secondary education.
In 1882, Mr.. politically and militarily against Egypt was under British control, and although in 1922. formally gained independence, Britain continued to play in its affairs role. In his youth with. dreamed of becoming an officer, to end British rule in the country. When in 1936. representatives of the lower classes has access to a military academy, P. advantage of this opportunity. During his studies he became friendly with Gamal Abdel Nasser.
After the Academy in 1938. S. was assigned to the Army Signal Corps unit, located in southern Egypt. Here, S., Nasser, and ten other officers established that the C. later called 'the secret revolutionary society in the name of liberation', ie. armed uprising against the British. This society became the core of organizations 'Free Officers', which in 1952. overthrew the monarchy.
Although Egypt remained officially neutral during the Second World War,. secretly collaborated with the Germans, all in pursuit of same goal of liberation from British rule. At the request of the Germans he tried to smuggle dismissed from the Egyptian army general in Iraq for strengthening the anti-British activity. The company failed, and C. arrested. For lack of evidence he was released and began to cooperate with two Nazi agents in Cairo, who gave him after his arrest. In October 1942. convicted by the Tribunal with. was dismissed from the army and went to prison. Two years later he began a hunger strike and was transferred to a prison hospital, where was able to escape. S. grown a beard, about a year while in hiding, constantly changed his appearance, location and job.
At the end of the war with. out of the underground, but in 1946. again found himself in jail, charged with attempted murder of Minister. Pending trial, he sat in jail for almost three years, but was later acquitted.
In 1950, Mr.. S. was reinstated in the army and went to the Sinai, where the liaison between groups of Nasser's 'Free Officers' and civilian terrorists. June 22, 1952, Mr.. Committee has carried out a bloodless coup, King Fa-hand I was sent into exile. S. for many years was honorary, but devoid of power positions. From 1961 to 1968. He was chairman of the National Assembly. S. replaced Nasser during the protocol visits to foreign countries, has been authorized by the President of Yemen, was torn in two by civil war.
During the reign of Nasser. was considered a man without pretensions or even weak. Companions called him 'Nasser's poodle', Nasser himself - 'black donkey'; ability P. underestimated. S. intentionally concealed his ambition, he later recalled: "If Nasser suspected ambition in you, you're dead '. In 1969. after a long illness Nasser appointed with. vice-president, apparently because he did not trust others. 28 September l970, Mr.. Nasser died of a heart attack, and C. became his natural successor.
Since the founding of Israel in 1948. Arab states led by Egypt were extremely hostile to it, periodically resorting to armed force. During the Six Day War 1967. Israel captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Until the election of 1970. S. vowed to return these lands to the Arabs. He promised to cooperate with its rivals, the election with. received more than 90% of the vote.
With. came to power during a shaky truce between Israel and Egypt, to which Nasser accepted despite the resistance of C. It is expected that. immediately resume hostilities, but on the contrary, extended the truce. In addition, he is in accordance with the wishes of the Egyptians has reduced the influence of the secret police, removed the military advisers.
By 1973, Mr.. negotiations with Israel at an impasse, and C. come under fire as "an ineffective leader '. That is when he decided to attack Israel. 'It's time to strike, - he said, - the resumption of the battle is now inevitable'. Following approval of the Soviet Union on a limited offensive with the support of Syria,. secretly prepared his share. October 6 during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur with. attacked Israeli positions. However, the enemy moved to the counter-attack, stopping the Syrians and the Egyptians forced the retreat of the Suez Canal. After 18 days of fighting, Israeli armored forces were 45 miles from Cairo.
With. without hesitation agreed to a truce, but the U.S. took steps to smooth over tensions. Through the efforts of U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had reached an agreement under which Israel returned the Sinai to Egypt part. But then the path to peace has slowed down.
Political position. continued to deteriorate. In 1977. its decision to raise the price of food has caused public unrest, . Hope at the Geneva conference on the Middle East became more and more elusive: Menachem Begin became prime minister of Israel, . which could now defeat to Egypt.,
. November 9
. surprised the world and the Egyptian Parliament a statement of willingness to enter into peace negotiations with the Israeli leadership. A week later, he repeated his proposal in a conversation with an American journalist, saying he was ready to go to Jerusalem if he receives an invitation from Begin. Invitation not long in coming, and on 19 November with. arrived in Jerusalem to attend the meeting of the Israeli parliament. He outlined his requirements for the return of all Arab territories occupied by Israel in 1967, and the foundation of a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. In this case, Egypt would recognize Israel.
The talks, initiated by S. lasted without much success until I interrupted U.S. President Carter. In August 1978. He invited the two leaders in the U.S. for a meeting at Camp David, his residence in the mountains of Maryland. Most observers predicted the failure of the meeting, and the participants themselves doubted the success to the end of 13-day conference. September 17 former enemies signed the 'Principles of peace in the Middle East' and 'basis for concluding a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel'. In accordance with these documents, Israel agreed to return the rest of the Sinai to Egypt. Question remains about the fate of, . Israeli settlements in the West Bank, . Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, . but still some semblance of peace was achieved after 30 years since the founding of the Israeli state.,
. The preparation and conclusion of agreements with the fundamental
. and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1978. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Aase Liones remarked: 'To the credit of President S., he realized that the solution of important social and economic problems of his country calls for immediate peace settlement with Israel'. Speaking about the historic visit with. in Jerusalem, she called it an act of 'great courage, personal and political. It was a dramatic break with the past and a bold step in a new time '.
In his Nobel lecture with. also referred to the Jerusalem visit: 'I decided on a trip, tk. convinced that the face of the current generation, as well as the future we can not leave this stone on the road to peace. Timid hope, we decided to turn into reality and enabled their people to rise above their unfortunate past. "
. Awarded the Nobel Prize, and C. Begin, the Nobel committee had in mind not so much mark the past achievements as 'to promote new efforts to develop practical solutions that could make the dream of peace a reality'
. Agreement establishes time signing a peace treaty - December, but the contract was not concluded. Many observers blame this Begin, who, incidentally, was in Oslo in person, while C. sent a representative.
Three years later, when political and religious opposition with. in Egypt reached its maximum expression, C. was killed during a military parade in Cairo. The roar of jet fighters it easier for the killers, dressed in military uniforms, opened fire at the podium and threw it with grenades.
With. was married twice, first at odnoselchanke Ekbel Madi, they had three daughters. After her divorce from his first wife he had in 1949. marry Jihan Raouf, a descendant of the bourgeois family. They had a son and three daughters.
In the native language, with. mastered English, German and Persian languages, loved to read. Tall man memorable appearance, he is usually dressed in European style, but in his native village he loved appearing in Arab robes. On withdrawal of 'New York Times', refined statesman could at any moment turn into ordinary homebody.
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