Sato (Sato), Eisaku( Japanese Prime Minister, Nobel Peace Prize, 1974)
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Biography Sato (Sato), Eisaku
March 27, 1901, Mr.. - June 3, 1975
. Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato was born in the village Tabuse (Yamaguchi Prefecture), . He was the youngest of three sons in the family of former bureaucrat and poet-lover Hidesuke Sato, . engaged in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages (all in the family had ten children),
. One of his sons, Ichiro, became an admiral, two others, and Eisaku Nobusuke - Prime Minister of Japan.
After primary school in Kuniko Tabuse and secondary school in Kumatoto, C. entered the Tokyo Imperial University, where he studied Germanic law. After graduating from university in 1924. with a law degree, he wanted to do the work in the Ministry of Finance, but settled down in the Ministry of Railways. In 1926, Mr.. S. married his cousin, Hiroko Sato, they had two sons. At work with. appreciated, he held several important positions in t.ch. position of Director of Bureau of Railways in Osaka (1944 ... 1946) and Vice-Minister for Transport (1947 ... 1948).
In March 1948. S. left the care of the transport and entered politics. Joined the Party of Democratic liberals, he was elected chairman of its offices in Yamaguchi Prefecture. In October, Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida drew him into his office. Yoshida tried to do this immediately after the Second World War, but U.S. occupation authorities have blocked the appointment of C., tk. his brother Nobusuke entered into the study of war and was suspected of committing war crimes. However Nobusuke (in accordance with the Japanese marriage customs changed his name to Kishi) was acquitted, and the brothers have access to politics.
In the parliamentary elections 1949. S. changed the balance of power in favor of his party. He left his post as Secretary to the Cabinet and became one of the closest aides Premier Yoshida, . first as Minister of Posts and Telecommunications (1951 ... 1952), . then - Minister of Construction (1952 ... 1953), . after which he was elected General Secretary of the Party.,
. Career With
. heavily damaged in 1954 when he and several other politicians were charged with taking bribes from a shipbuilding company. The charges against him were gradually lifted, but the party suffered a serious setback. Until 1957. S. was out of politics, then was elected chairman of the Executive Committee renewed the Liberal Democratic Party, whose president was his brother.
In 1958, Mr.. Nobusuke Kishi became prime minister of Japan, and appointed his brother the Minister of Finance. In 1960, Mr.. prime minister was elected with a classmate. Hiyato Ikeda, who offered him the post of Minister of Foreign Trade and Industry. In July 1962, Mr.. S. left the room, saw what his claim to the post of prime minister, and went to a foreign trip, he met with leaders of France, the United States and other great powers. Then, despite differences with Ikeda, whom he accused of weakness, with. returned to his office in July 1963. and remained there until the end of 1964. Then he put forward his candidature for the post of party leader, that if he wins the election to become prime minister. Although Ikeda maintain its leadership in October 1964. was forced to resign for health reasons. After some hesitation, Ikeda was appointed with. his successor, and on 9 November 1964. Parliament elected him prime minister.
In the first days in power with. announced its intention to strengthen Japan's position in the international arena, while maintaining the post-war pacifism. 'I think that the unarmed and non-nuclear nations such as Japan, should play a greater role in maintaining peace' - said C. after the inauguration. The Prime Minister promised to continue the policy of close cooperation with the U.S., . reaffirmed the commitment of the postwar Japanese Constitution, . which, . particularly, . read: 'War and the threat or other use of force is prohibited as a means of solving conflicts between peoples',
. This confirmation was all the more important that the military policy of Japan, economic power is growing in her eyes, was at a crossroads. S. made it clear that Japan condemns the use of nuclear weapons, and resolved 'not to produce such weapons', do not have and not allow him to Japan. "
With. sought to improve Japan's relations with its neighbors. In 1965, Mr.. he signed a treaty of friendship and restored diplomatic relations with South Korea, the former victims of Japanese aggression. Two years later, with. traveled to the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, South Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Burma, that the beneficial impact on the development of trade and cultural relations. During the Vietnam War with. tried to mediate, but he has disappointed many Japanese people and, by approving the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam in 1968
Through close liaison with the United States. made important peaceful return of Japanese islands of Okinawa and Ogasawara. United States seized the islands during the Second World War, during a fierce battle. After five years of negotiations in 1972. the islands to Japanese sovereignty was restored. S. tried to improve relations with the USSR and China, but to no avail. In July 1972, Mr.. He resigned as prime minister because of disagreements within the party.
Japan firmly directed the course of anti-militarism, C. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1974, which split with Sean McBride. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Ose Liones said on this subject: 'Block the trend towards the revival of nationalist politics in postwar Japan, . constantly stressing, . need for international cooperation, . playing the role of arbitrator and thus helping to smooth over differences, . With,
. made a major contribution to peace '. Liones also noted that it is the leadership with. Japan led the condemnation of nuclear weapons - the only one of the great powers.
Accepting the award, with. called the Soviet Union and the United States to nuclear disarmament. He also spoke about the need to conclude an international agreement on cooperation in peaceful uses of atomic energy.
Selection. As the Nobel laureate was here and there met with disbelief. Although the Japanese anti-militarism was delighted recognition of their country, many questioned the pacifism C. Japanese remember that C. approved the bombing of North Vietnam, to oppose the entry of China in the UN and the restoration of normal relations with Beijing.
May 19, 1975, Mr.. during lunch in the restaurant at C. happened Stroke. Two weeks later he died.