Cecil (Cecil), Robert( English statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1937)
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Biography Cecil (Cecil), Robert
September 14, 1864, Mr.. - November 24, 1958
English statesman Edgar Oldzhernon Geskoyn Robert Cecil (Viscount Cecil-of-Chelvud) was born in London, the five sons of Lord Robert Arthur Talbot Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, he was the third. Father S., a member of the House of Commons, later became prime minister. Surrounded by luxury, standard among the British aristocracy, C. to 13 years was brought up in a family. Following the two older brothers, he went to Eton and then Oxford, where he studied law and in 1886. earned. The following year. received the right to practice law and became a lawyer in London. In 1889, Mr.. He married Lady Eleanor Lambton, children they had not.
When P. in 1906. was elected to Parliament from the Conservative Party (District East Marylebone, London), he already had a reputation for progressive views. Supporter of limited freedom of trade and women's suffrage, C. year later came into conflict with his own party. Having broken with the conservatives, he spoke at the parliamentary elections as an independent candidate and put up double-struck by. tion, has not yet won a seat in the House of Commons from the county Hitchin (Hertfordshire), which is kept for 12 years.
With. 50 years old, when the United Kingdom in 1914. declared war on Germany. Not liable to conscription, C. began work in the department of wounded and missing of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Paris, Bologna and London. Soon, he was appointed Deputy Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and in 1916. - Minister. Confronted with the horrors of war while working for the Red Cross prompted P. make peace plans. In September 1916. He sent members of the British Cabinet a memorandum to the proposal to explore the possibility of establishing post-war tribunal, where disputes between nations could be resolved peacefully. Despite the opposition of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, offering. was approved by the Cabinet and became the foundation of the British project of the League of Nations.
Immediately after the First World War. took over as Chancellor of the University of Birmingham. He attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. a special adviser to the British delegation. Having established contact with U.S. representatives, led by Woodrow Wilson and the French - headed by Leon Bourgeois, C. organized the Committee for the British delegation on the development of the peace agreement. Among other things, he recommended the adoption of Germany and its allies in the League of Nations. The failure of this enterprise, he wrote with. later, 'turned into the greatest disaster for the League. Consequently, the impression that the League ruled by France and England and she is nothing but a continuation of the military alliance '. Defeated with plans for Germany, with. assisted Fridtjof Nansen was able to convince neutral countries to join the League of Nations.
Shortly after the conference. resigned his government post in protest against the separation of church and state for Wales. In 1920 ... 1922. He attended the Assembly of the League of Nations as the representative of South Africa, appointed by Jan Smuts. In taking this position,. joined a small group of delegates (which included Nansen and Karl Branting), seeks to put the sessions of the League on the basis of a purely parliamentary. With the formation in 1923. new UK government. the title of Viscount Cecil-of-Chelvud and became Lord Privy Seal, this is not burdensome position allowed him to devote themselves entirely to the League of Nations. The following year he was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and from this time determined the policy of Great Britain in the League of Nations.
Almost from the inception of the League unfolded in a climate of growing militarism. In 1923, Mr.. B. Mussolini sent warships to capture the Greek island of Corfu in response to the killing of an Italian citizen at the Greek territory. S. and Nancy tried to convince the Council of the League to mediate, while the matter is considered by the international court, but to no avail, and the dispute was resolved without the participation of the League.
Another failure of the expected C. next year, when the British government rejected the Geneva Protocol, which sets out the jurisdiction of an international court on the basis of the principles of international law. The protocol also called for an agreement on collective security, disarmament conference. In 1927, Mr.. S. represented Britain at the Geneva Conference on Disarmament Sea, where Japan and the U.S. participated. The refusal of the British Government on parity with the U.S. broke the negotiations, and C. again resigned. However, he continued to be active in the affairs of the League as chairman of the International Federation of Societies - the informal organization of the League of Nations.
In 1932, Mr.. U.S. President Herbert Hoover has embodied many of the ideas with. in terms of disarmament, which has received preliminary approval from Italy, Germany, the Soviet Union and some other states. But this plan was torpedoed by the efforts of Britain, which seriously damaged the prestige and influence of the League of Nations. With unshaken. organized an unofficial plebiscite, conducted in 1934 ... and 1935. He showed that more than 11 million. British advocate for disarmament and peace initiatives. Over 90% of those surveyed expressed support for the League, and 80% were opposed to the Air Force.
The latest crisis was followed by the League in 1935, when Italian troops invaded Ethiopia. Public opinion is unanimous in the UK demanded sanctions against Italy, but to the disappointment of S., the government failed to act. In 1936, Mr.. efforts with. An international campaign of peace, social organization in support of disarmament and the formation mechanism of conflict resolution by the League of Nations.
In commemoration of merit P. before the League of Nations, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1937. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee paid tribute to Christian Lange 'unwavering determination', which with. demonstrated a 'whole life in the struggle for peace'. Current affairs interfere with. attend the awards ceremony, but the Nobel lecture he gave on June 1 next year at the University of Oslo. A brief overview of events, which again led humanity to the brink of conflict,. warned that another war would be marked by bloodshed, more terrible than in 1914. 'Let us not underestimate the danger - spoke to. - Doctrine of those who profess nationalism, was the lack of distinction between military and civilians, legitimate and necessary method of fighting is the complete destruction of unfortified cities and their residents'. In conclusion, C. expressed the hope that at the last moment the Government will support the League of Nations, 'before Europe will plunge again into bloodshed. "
During the Second World War. published the 'Great Experiment' ( 'Great Experiment', 1941), a story about his activities in the League of Nations. After the war he attended the last meeting of the League in Geneva, and was elected Honorary Life President of the Association of the United Nations. His autobiography 'All the way' ( 'All the Way') appeared in 1949
Died In. the age of 94 at Tan-bridge Wells (Kent), a few months before the death of his wife.