Desmond Tutu( South African Archbishop of the Nobel Peace Prize, 1984)
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Biography Desmond Tutu
genus. October 7, 1931
South African Archbishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu was born in Klerksdorp Province (Transvaal), in the gold mines. His father, Zacharias Tutu, who came from the Bantu tribe, taught at the school methodical. Mother, Aletta, came from the Tswana tribe, and was home maid. Baptized in the Church of methodical, T. then after his parents moved to the Church of England. After the family moved to Johannesburg, he chose a mentor, Trevor Huddleston, an Anglican priest who spoke out against apartheid.
After graduating from high school in Johannesburg, T. received a diploma in college for the Bantu in Pretoria, and then a bachelor's degree at the University of Johannesburg. From 1954 to 1957. T. taught in secondary school. In 1955, Mr.. He married Lee Nomalizo Shenksane, and they had three daughters and a son.
In 1957, after the government imposed a discriminatory system of education for the Bantu, T. in protest, resigned and decided to become a priest. Huddleston like his father, he joined the Community of redemption, providing for the daily Eucharist, regular prayer, solitary reflection. The experience deepened his faith. In 1960, Mr.. Theological College of St.. Peter conferred T. Licentiate of Theology, and a year later, T. was ordained a priest in the Anglican rite.
Change of religion T. coincided with major political changes in South Africa. In 1910,. Union of South Africa was established as a constitutional monarchy within the British Commonwealth of Nations. After the Second World War, National Party, which was dominated by Afrikaners, introduced in the state system of racial segregation, better known under the name of apartheid. In 50-ies. Further constraints on freedom of the black population has caused uproar at home and criticism abroad. Under the leadership of Albert Luthuli African National Congress was trying to find a peaceful solution to the conflict, but in 1960. banned. In October, the white minority in the referendum voted for the withdrawal of the British Commonwealth and the republican form of government. May 31, 1961, Mr.. Union of South Africa was renamed the Republic of South Africa.
T. served in the church of. Alban in Benoni (1960 ... 1961), and then in the church of. Philip in Olbertone (1961 ... 1962). Four years later, he studied abroad, receiving a bachelor's degree in theology and a master's degree in theology at King's College London. Returning to South Africa, T. lectured at the Federal Theological Seminary in 1967 ... 1969. and the National University of Lesotho in 1970 ... 1971.
T. later recalled that the experience gained in Britain, helped him to 'self-actualization', to gain confidence for the dispute with white. In 1972. T. as deputy director of the Foundation of theological education again visited England, then traveled to Africa and Asia. Returning home in 1975. He was appointed rector of Johannesburg's Cathedral, and a year later - the Bishop of Lesotho.
For T. religion and politics are not separated. 'God acts in the Bible primarily as a personification of political experience, a means of emancipation from the yoke' - indicates the T. In 1976, when the youth in Soweto has become the path of violence, T. with Black activists Nhat Motlanoy had managed to anger the crowd into the mainstream of peaceful demonstrations. Nevertheless, the victims of the June riots were 600 color of Soweto. On the possibility of outbreaks of violence T. warned in a letter to Prime Minister Vorster Belshazzar, as a result of the government became part of the bishop with suspicion.
In 1978. T. became general secretary of the South African Council of Churches. Under his leadership, the organization of 13 million. Christians, 80% of whom were colored, demanded the government to end the apartheid system. Most of the budget of the South African Council came to the aid of color in detention, as well as their families. In 1979. T. openly criticized the South African government for the forced relocation of colored people from cities to the tribal reservation. While in Denmark, T. irritated the leaders of South Africa with his performance on television, during which called on the Danish government not to buy South African coal.
Although his passport was confiscated twice that in South Africa is regarded as a serious warning, T. continued to call for economic sanctions against South Africa. He also warned the government that the reluctance to change policy will inevitably lead to bloodshed. In response, the commission was established Eloffa to examine the financial situation of the South African Council of Churches. The commission's report, published in February 1984, criticized the financial management board and support proscribed African National Congress, the Commission has proposed to consider calls for sanctions against South Africa criminal.
. At the end of that year it was announced the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize
. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Orvik Egil said: 'The award of this year should be seen as recognition of the courage and heroism displayed by black South Africans, who are fighting peacefully against apartheid ... The Committee wishes to emphasize that the Peace Prize is a sign of support not only the T. and he headed the South African Council of Churches, but all people and groups in South Africa, who won the sympathy of his commitment to human dignity, brotherhood and democracy.
In his Nobel lecture T. expressed confidence that 'there is no peace where there is no justice'. 'Let us be peacemakers, - said T. - given their share of the good God. If we want peace, let us work for justice. Transform, our swords into plows. "
In November 1984. Synod of the Anglican bishops appointed T. first black bishop of Johannesburg, and two years later he became Archbishop. Becoming a bishop, T. settled in the 'black' suburb of Soweto, instead of living in the episcopal residence, located in a white neighborhood.
Although tensions in South Africa has not diminished since then, as T. received the Nobel prize, he continued to adhere to a moderate position. His preaching peaceful change increasingly came under fire from radicals. 'We are not fighting to suppress anyone was - patiently explained to TV - but for general release'.
T. make long trips to the expansion of economic sanctions against South Africa, in the U.S., he met with business and political leaders. In January 1986, Mr.. speaking in Atlanta, T. warned of a possible campaign of civil disobedience if the South African government will not abandon the policy of racial discrimination. In its homeland, he called for unity of all color. As the confrontation T. was increasingly difficult to combine the role of moderate in the black community and the apostle of peace in the eyes of whites.
During the ceremony, 1985. in the Cathedral of the Virgin Mary T. called the white minority of South Africa to treat with understanding color. 'The fact is that we are normal people. We also love to be with women, we are pleased when children meet us after work. There is nothing supernatural, - said T., - is the need for any human. We want to see a new Africa, where all of us, black and white, would go toward the future, which the Lord will open for us. "