Joseph Austen Chamberlain( English statesman and politician, Nobel Peace Prize, 1925)
Comments for Joseph Austen Chamberlain
Biography Joseph Austen Chamberlain
October 16, 1863, Mr.. - March 16, 1937
English statesman and political figure, Joseph Austen Chamberlain was born in Birmingham (UK). His father was Joseph Chamberlain, a successful industrialist and politician. Mother Gariet Kenrick, died in childbirth. His father married again, and after 6 years in the family was born the second son, Neville, who later became Prime Minister of Great Britain. Growing up in a tense atmosphere of political activity, H. went to school policies at home. He studied at Rugby School and later at Trinity College (Cambridge), where he received in 1885. degree.
After 9 months in France, W. attended lectures at the Paris School of Political Knowledge. Another year he studied in Germany. Returning to England in 1888, W. served in my father's personal secretary duties. In the same year as a liberal unionist, he was elected to Parliament from the district of East Worcestershire, near Birmingham, this place W. kept for 22 years
In a letter to Queen Victoria have. Gladstone, who had listened to the first question B. in Parliament, described him as a man who has shown great promise in political terms.
Pretty soon, H. fully met expectations Gladstone: in 1892. he became the organizer of the parliamentary party in 1895. - Lord of the Admiralty, in 1900, Mr.. - Financial Secretary of the Treasury, in 1902. - Minister of Post and in 1903. - Chancellor of the Exchequer (ie. Minister of Finance). All those years strengthened his reputation as an energetic politician and a formidable parliamentary soldier.
In 1906, which saw the defeat of the party from the liberals, H. married Ivy Myuriel, and they had two sons and a daughter. After leaving the government post, he retained a seat in Parliament, where he played a significant role in persuading the administration of the need to support France and England before the First World War.
. The coalition government formed in 1915, H
. became Minister for Indian Affairs. Two years later, after the scandal caused by the lack of medical care during the British advance on Baghdad in Mesopotamia, H. resigned: his ministry was involved in this case, though personally against H. charges were made.
In April 1918. CH. joined the coalition cabinet formed by David Lloyd George, and was re-appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer.
In that position for two years, H. strengthened the system of credit and significantly increased the taxes for early payment of war debts.
When in 1921. illness forced Bonar Law to temporarily withdraw from politics, H. took his place at the head of the House of Commons, but the loyalty of H. to Lloyd George pushed him from conservatives. Support W. formation of the Irish Republic has increased mistrust of him in the Conservative party conference 1922. leadership once again turned to Lowe. This undermined hopes H. the post of prime minister.
Appointed foreign minister in the government of Stanley Baldwin in 1924, H. entered the arena of international politics, where at that time the situation was very tense. Former British government approved the Geneva Protocol, proposed by France, which was obliged to dispute the country to resort to arbitration. The agreement authorized the Council of the League to determine the steps that member states should have been taken for the protocol in the life. This was resisted in the UK, the share of H. fell to reject the protocol in a speech to the Council. Charles, however, expressed hope that the Council will undertake in the event of crisis preparation for any necessary action.
. In the same year, Foreign Minister Germanic Gustav Stresemann announced his Government's willingness to guarantee the post-war borders of the Rhine
. Between C., Stresemann, Aristide Briand (French Minister of Foreign Affairs) and representatives of Belgium, Poland, Italy, Czechoslovakia began the long and difficult negotiations in Locarno (Switzerland), where on Oct. 5, 1925, Mr.. announced their results, and on October 16, the birthday of Charles, signed the final documents.
. As a result of eight agreements, known as Locarno, Germany joined the League of Nations, the seven countries to guarantee its western frontier, have agreed to settle disputes by means of arbitration and have the willingness to disarm as part of the League of Nations
. 'One of the main consequences of the Locarno Treaties would increase the prestige and authority of the League of Nations' - predicted Robert Cecil. CH. returned to England in triumph and was awarded the Order of the Garter.
Locarno Agreement universally valued as an unprecedented contribution to peace. Helping to dispel the French hostility to Germany and irritation of the Germans at the Treaty of Versailles, they made it possible for the international cooperation needed to restore political and economic systems in Europe. For his role in negotiating the Locarno W. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925, which he shared with Charles G. Dawes, H. not present at the awards ceremony and presented the Nobel lecture, but his telegram of thanks read out at the Nobel Committee in Norway, the British ambassador, Sir Francis Layndli.
In the four remaining years, which h. headed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, . He took aggressive measures to protect Shanghai from a possible Japanese attack, . tried unsuccessfully to stabilize the Anglo-Egyptian relations, . supported the Kellogg Pact - Brian, . received the name after the French foreign minister Aristide Briand and U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg.,
. After the fall of the government in 1929, Mr. Baldwin
. CH. spent much effort in order to help the political career of his half-brother Neville. With the formation in 1931. Inter-Party Government B. became first lord of the Admiralty, but was somewhat disappointed that he was not invited again to lead the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In the Admiralty, complained to Charles, he imagined 'the party's old horse, which is dangerous to produce the will, and her mouth so silenced post'. Unrest sailors on the salary in Invergordon (Scotland) gave H. opportunity to resign after the general elections in October 1931. 'I hope that my disappearance - he wrote Baldwin - Neville easier path to the post'.
As a member of Parliament h. continued political activism, among other things, he warned of the threat posed by the Nazi government A. Hitler, spoke in favor of economic sanctions against Italy in connection with the seizure of Ethiopia. CH. also served on the board of the British School of Advanced Medical. At the same time they were written by the works 'later years' (1935), . essays about great men, . with whom he had met, . and 'Inside Politics' (1936), . composed of letters, . he wrote to his father, . to keep him informed of political developments in the last years of his life (his father died in 1914),
. Tall, always impeccably dressed and elegant, C., despite his aristocratic appearance, famous for its warmth and sociability, which earned him a fervent love of many friends.
W. died in London of an apoplectic stroke March 16, 1937, just two months before Neville became Prime Minister.