Schweitzer (Schweitzer), Albert( German doctor, missionary, theologian and musicologist Nobel Peace Prize, 1952)
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Biography Schweitzer (Schweitzer), Albert
January 14, 1875, Mr.. - September 4, 1965
German doctor, missionary, theologian and musicologist Albert Schweitzer was born in Keyzerberge (Upper Alsace, now the Upper Rhine), in the family, he was the second child and eldest son. Shortly after the birth of Albert's parents - a Lutheran priest, Louis Schweitzer and Adele Schillinger - moved to Gunsbah. Since the French province of Alsace was annexed by Germany as a result of the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, W. received Germanic nationality. His parents were French, and W. learned to speak fluently in both languages. Under the guidance of his father at the age of five he started playing the piano, four years later, he could sometimes substitute organist at the village church.
Visiting the High School in Munster, and then in Mö+hlhausen, W. also learned to play the organ at the Eugene Munch. Leaving school in 1893, he enrolled at the University of Strasbourg, where he studied theology and philosophy. The first exam in theology, he passed in 1898, at the same time he was appointed a scholarship, which gave Z. opportunity to study philosophy at the University of Paris (Sorbonne) and take lessons on the organ at the Sh-M. Vidor. In just four months, he wrote his dissertation 'The essence of faith: philosophy of religion' ( 'Die Religions philosophic Kants') and in 1899. He received his Doctor of Philosophy. Two years later he received his doctorate in theology with a thesis on the significance of the Last Supper.
In 1902, Mr.. SH. was appointed professor of the theological college of St.. Thomas, a year later became its director. In addition to lectures, W. played on the organ and engaged in scientific work. The main theological work W. - 'Von Reimarus zu Wrede' (1906), translated under the title 'The question of the historical Jesus', it W. rejected the attempts to modernize Jesus or deny him the historicity. SH. stressed the eschatological nature of the mission of Christ and saw in their suffering means to achieve the kingdom of God on earth.
At the same time, W. become the largest specialist in the creation of Bach, whose biography he published in 1908. (Bach was devoted to his doctoral thesis in musicology, protected in Strasbourg three years later). SH. considered Bach as a religious mystic, whose music is the text connected with the 'true nature poems'. His book refuted 'pedantic view of the music of Bach, supposedly intellectual and austere', wrote Rosalyn Turek, 'but rejected and romantic sentimentality, which Bach used to perform'. SH. was the biggest expert on the construction bodies. His book on the subject, published in 1906, has saved many bodies from undue modernization.
Despite the achievements in the field of philosophy, theology, musicology, W. felt obliged to fulfill the oath given to himself at age 21. Considering himself in debt to the world, W. then decided to engage in art and science to 30 years, and then devote himself to 'direct service to humanity'. The article about the shortage of doctors in Africa, he read in the journal of the Paris Missionary Society, suggested Sh, what must be done to perform conceived. 'From now on, I had to not talk about the gospel of love, - he explained later - but put it into practice'.
Leaving work in 1905, W. enrolled in the College of Medicine, University of Strasbourg, offsetting the costs of training at the expense of organ concerts. In 1911, Mr.. He passed his exams, and a year later he married Helene Breslau, in 1919. had a daughter, Rena.
In 1913, Mr.. SH. his wife sailed to Africa, on behalf of the Paris Missionary Society, they had to establish a hospital in the mission in LambaröLnöL (French Equatorial Africa, now Gabon). Demand for its services was huge. Not receiving medical care, the natives were suffering from malaria, yellow fever, sleeping sickness, dysentery, leprosy. In the first nine months of W. took 2 thousand. patients.
In 1917, Mr.. SH. and his wife, as the Germans nationals, were interned in France until the end of World War. After liberation W. spent seven years in Europe. Exhausted, sick, weary of having to pay debts LambaröLnöL, he worked in the municipal hospital in Strasbourg, in addition, he resumed his organ concerts. With the help of Archbishop Nathan SöTderblom W. in 1920. gave concerts and lectures at Uppsala University and other places.
During these years, W. developed a system of ethical principles, which he called 'Tribute to Life' ( 'Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben'). He expressed his views in his book Philosophy of Culture I: The Decline and Revival '(' Kulturphilosophie I: Verfall und Wiederaufbau der Kultur ') and' Philosophy of Culture II: Culture and Ethics' ( 'Kulturphilosophie II: Kultur und Ethik'), . published in 1923,
. 'The definition of ethics seems to me so, - explained the W
. - The fact that supports and continues to life - well, that damage and violates life - bad. The deep and universal ethics is the importance of religion. It is a religion '. Tribute to life, continued Sh, 'requires that every particle sacrifice their lives for others'.
Returning to LambaröLnöL in 1924, W. found a hospital in ruins. His new hospital has evolved into a complex of 70 buildings, its staff consisted of doctors and nurses from the number of volunteers. The complex was built as a typical African village, electricity was conducted only in the operating. Around the animals roamed freely, and family members were allowed to care for patients during recovery. The purpose of W. was to elicit the confidence of the natives, assisting them in their familiar environment. By the beginning of the 60-ies. Hospital W. accommodated 500 people.
Periods of work in Africa III. alternated with trips to Europe during which he lectured and gave concerts to raise funds for hospital. He has received many awards. In 1928, Mr.. Frankfurt city awarded him the Goethe Prize, paying tribute to 'the spirit of Goethe's' W. and noting the service of humanity. During the 30-ies. journalism, recording concerts and translations of basic works have won fame W. world. When in 1939. in Europe the war began, medications for LambaröLnöL began to arrive from the United States, Australia, New Zealand. After the war, the flow of goods increased. In 1951, Mr.. SH. West Germany won the World Association of Publishers and Booksellers. In the same year he was elected a member of the French Academy.
In 1953, Mr.. SH. was in LambaröLnöL, when the news came the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize 1952. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gunnar Yang said: 'W. showed that the life of man and his dream may merge. His work has breathed life into the concept of the brotherhood, his words reached the consciousness of countless people and left there is a beneficial trace '. SH. could not leave his duties in Africa, to attend the awards ceremony, so the prize received the French Ambassador to Norway. The money received from the Nobel Committee, W. built a leper colony near a hospital in LambaröLnöL.
At the end of 1954. SH. went to Oslo, where the November 4 gave a Nobel lecture, 'Problems of Peace'. In it he expressed the conviction that humanity must renounce war for ethical reasons, t. to. 'War makes us guilty of the crime of inhumanity'. In his view, only 'when the ideal of peace take root in the human consciousness, can be expected to work effectively institutions designed to protect the world'.
In 1957. SH. made a 'Declaration of Conscience', broadcast by radio from Oslo. In it he called on all the ordinary people of the world unite and demand their governments to ban nuclear weapons tests. Soon after this 2 thousand. American scientists have signed a petition to cease nuclear testing, Bertrand Russell and Canon Collins in England, launched a campaign for nuclear disarmament. In 1958, Mr.. started negotiations on arms control, who five years later culminated in a formal contract of the superpowers of the ban on testing.
Estimates of W. were heterogeneous. Some thought his medical practice in the jungle waste of talent, others accused him of escape from life. Gerald McKnight in his book 'The verdict Schweitzer' called LambaröLnöL place where W. could exercise absolute power. Many journalists believed paternalistic attitude W. to patients reminiscence time missionary. Critics have noted his lack of understanding of nationalist aspirations in Africa, a rigid, authoritarian treatment of assistants; koekto of the visitors spoke about the low level of sanitation in the hospital W. Despite this, many (especially in America) have seen in the W. saint XX in. Through public appearances and photos in the press learned of his worldwide. One of the visitors LambaröLnöL emphasized its hands 'with huge sensitive fingers, which are equally adroitly sewed the wound, repaired the roof, playing Bach on the organ, wrote down the words on the importance of Goethe for civilization in the period of decline'. SH. died in LambaröLnöL September 4, 1965, Mr.. and was buried beside his wife, who died in 1957,. Hospital management has passed to their daughter.