Stresemann (Streseman), Gustav( Deutsch statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1926)
Comments for Stresemann (Streseman), Gustav
Biography Stresemann (Streseman), Gustav
May 10, 1878, Mr.. - October 3, 1929
Germanic statesman Gustav Stresemann was born and raised in Berlin, where his father, Ernst Stresemann, was a successful innkeepers and the innkeeper. Only one in the family had received secondary education, Gustav had great success in high school, Andreas. SH. studied literature, history and political economy (first in the University of Berlin), received his doctorate in 1902. His thesis was devoted to the growing offensive of large corporations to small trade bottled beer in Berlin.
After postgraduate W. I decided to tie its future to the business world. Starting an assistant manager in the Association of Germanic chocolate manufacturers, it is only a year later moved to a managerial job in the office of the Union of Industrialists. Having shown considerable organizational skills and talent of persuasion, W. increased the number of members of the Union, from 180 to 1000 in just two years.
Like most of his contemporaries, who grew up in the petty-bourgeois Prussian environment, W. hold conservative political views, was confident in the cultural and military superiority of Germany, devoted to the ideals of nationalism and monarchy germanskogo. Convinced that between commerce and politics there is a direct link, W. ran for election in the municipality of Dresden and in 1906. won, in the same year he married Kцгthe Kleefeld, daughter of the Berlin industrialist, who gave birth to Z. two sons. A year later, W. was elected to the Reichstag from the national-liberal party. At the same time, he was appointed director of the Union of Industrialists Saxon. Simultaneously W. edited the newspaper 'Saxon industry' ( 'Sachsische Industrie').
Fast is nominated in the National Liberal Party, W. sought to create a strong fleet, which is considered important for the expansion of overseas trade in Germany. Exempt from military service during the First World War because of heart disease, he became a prominent figure in the parliamentary. With the help of his extraordinary gift of polemic W. advocated unrestricted submarine warfare, and in 1917. participated in the overthrow of the Government of Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, whose Z. considered ineffective leader. In the same year, W. led his party. Being a supporter of decisive military action, he nevertheless reminded colleagues in the Reichstag that Germany must not refuse reasonable terms of peace.
In August, 1918. Germanic front hesitated, the Navy began riots. In November, 1918. Germanic Government has proposed a truce, after which the Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated. In May 1919 g.Sh. other Germanic politicians met in Weimar for registration of a new constitution of Germany. A year later, W. was re-elected to the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic. After three years at the head of the parliamentary opposition in 1923. He was elected Chancellor of Germany. The coalition government lasted less than four months, but W. had to take tough measures against the Communist revolution in Saxony, to restore order after Hitler's putsch in Bavaria, a number of steps to stabilize the German currency.
Alarmed by the resolute action W. in Saxony, the Social Democrats out of the coalition, became chancellor in. Marx, W. was appointed to the post of foreign minister, who became his lifelong. Disappointed in power politics, W. began to realize that only with the improvement of relations with neighbors Germany can rebuild the economy and soften the harsh conditions of the Versailles Treaty, to which W. voted in 1919
At Versailles, the Allies established the amount of reparations to 35.5 billion dollars. The debt was unsustainable, and in 1923. Germany has suspended payments. In response, the French troops occupied the Ruhr - the heart of Germany's economy. A year later, the allies met in London to review the question of reparations, the proposal of an international commission announced Charles G. Dawes. Representing Germany, W. negotiated the withdrawal of Allied troops from the Ruhr and the revision of the national debt. These measures germanskomu the government to borrow in the U.S. and accelerate economic recovery.
In an atmosphere of goodwill created by 'Dawes Plan', W. in 1925. sent a note to the French government, offering to install the Anglo-Franco-Germanic guarantee the Franco-Prussian border. In October W. Meets with French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand and British Foreign Minister J. Austen Chamberlain in Locarno (Switzerland). Under the agreements signed there (known as the Locarno Pact), France, . Germany and Belgium have agreed not to change the existing borders by force; Italy and Britain to guarantee the demilitarization of the Rhineland, . Germany was admitted to the League of Nations,
. Returning to Berlin, W. calmed the internal opposition that the pact did not mean recognition of the disputed border of Germany, but is intended to protect them from armed aggression.
Continuing its policy of peace, W. began to prepare a treaty of neutrality with the Soviet Union. Signed in April 1926. contract required from each state do not participate in the political alliance and economic boycott against another State. In September, Sh, despite deteriorating health, led by Germany's delegation at the session of the League of Nations.
Nobel Peace Prize 1926. SH. shared with Aristide Briand. In his Nobel lecture, which bore the name 'New Germany', W. asked the question: 'Does Germany's development is worth in recent years, awards, awarded for a peaceful politikuN' According to S., 'to this question is answered by the very essence of Germanic appeasement'. This policy is reflected in the Locarno Pact and other agreements. 'We belong to a generation that is turning darkness into light, - said S., quoting Goethe. - Let these words will be fair and in our days'.
Despite the warnings of doctors, W. stayed on as minister. He lived to see the signing of 'Young Plan', which reduced the reparations payments in half and set the date for the evacuation of the Rhineland. A year before the treaty enters into force W. died in Berlin on strike. After his death, the German People's Party shifted to the right, that foreshadowed the victory of Nazism in Germany.
Calling W. 'pragmatic conservative', . American historian Henry Turner said, . that 'throughout his career his goals coincide with the objectives of the Germans, . which in the broad sense can be called conservatives: the restoration of the state's power, . prosperity and preservation of pre-revolutionary social and economic order, . as possible ',
. On the other hand, adds Turner, 'in contrast to most of his conservative compatriots Sh, as a pragmatist, striving to be flexible in the choice of political means to achieve these goals. "