Angell (Angell), Norman( English writer and pacifist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1933)
Comments for Angell (Angell), Norman
Biography Angell (Angell), Norman
December 26, 1873, Mr.. - October 7, 1967
Ralph Norman Angell, British journalist and pacifist, was born in Holbiche (Lincolnshire), he was the seventh child of a prosperous landowner, Thomas Angell Lane and Mary Ann Brittain. Subsequently, E. changed the name, dropping its second part. After a preparatory education in England, E. then was sent to the Lyceum St.. Omer in Northern France. impression.
Having opted for radical ideas, e. age 15 went to Geneva, in a multinational environment, which found refuge revolutionaries and political refugees. There he edited the English-language newspaper published twice a month, and attended lectures at the University of Geneva. In 1891, Mr.. E. leaving Switzerland, without first obtaining the degree. Spent some time in England, he received from his father as a gift of бё 50 and went to the United States.
For seven years, E. try out different classes: a cowboy, a digger, a prospector, a postman. In California, he tried to get land, but failed. Then E. closely engaged in journalism, working on the order of 'St. Louis Globe Democrat', 'San Francisco Chronicle' and others.
In 1898, Mr.. E. married Beatrice Kyuvele from New Orleans. Life it is shrouded in mystery, but there is reason to believe that his wife was rather frivolous woman. E. parted with her in 1914, but continued to support her until her death in 1955. Children they had not.
In 1898, Mr.. E. returned briefly to England to settle family affairs. After that he went to Paris where he made a living reporting on the Dreyfus. The next year, E. became editor of the Paris English-language newspaper 'Daily Messenger'. His notes on the Spanish-American War, . Dreyfus and the Anglo-Boer War prompted to write the first book 'Patriotism under three flags: in defense of rationalism in politics' ( 'Patriotism Under Three Flags: A Plea for Rationalism in Politics', . 1903),
. A year later, he accepts the proposal of the English newspaper magnate Lord Nortkliffa (Alfred Harmsuorta) edited the Paris edition of 'Daily Mail'. This post has significantly expanded the horizons E. in international affairs.
In 1909, Mr.. E. published at his own expense a small book 'The European illusion' ( 'Europe's Optical Illusion'), which examined the economic roots of war. At Lord Escher (Reginald Brett), an influential statesman and historian, the book made such an impression that he had sent 200 copies to their friends in Europe. The next edition under the title 'Grand Illusion' ( 'The Great Illusion') broke up two million copies, the book translated into 25 languages. It was then that E. began to use the shortened name. In 'Grand Illusion' E. demonstrated that the economic prosperity of the war - nothing but a mirage. In an era of economic interdependence can not be expected to benefit from the war: to enrich the aggressor, and it threatens the victors and the vanquished the destruction of international trade and credit. Moreover, noted E., reparation payments only sow the seeds of future conflicts.
E. left the 'Daily Mail' in 1912, but subsequently he has repeatedly appeared on its pages, despite ideological differences with the conservative Nortkliffom. The following year a few friends E. to promote his views founded the periodical 'War and Peace'. Quite often, he wrote for American magazines, especially for the 'New Republic'.
When in August 1914. outbreak of World War I, E. with P. MacDonald, W. Trevelyanom and others organized the Union of Democratic Control, which was to carry out public control over the foreign policy of the Government. During the war, E. expressed the idea of a permanent community of nations to safeguard international peace and security. This idea is often heard in his lectures and had an impact on President Woodrow Wilson and his project of the League of Nations.
E. attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. and was greatly disappointed with the terms of the Versailles Treaty, which diverged from the expectations expressed in the 'Grand Illusion'. E. became vice-chairman of the committee, is pressing the union of fairer world. He also founded the movement 'against hunger', which is engaged in supplying food, medicines and clothing for the children of Central Europe, has experienced horrendous deprivation in the postwar years. In his articles and books E. continued to analyze the current situation in the world. In the 'fruits of victory' ( 'The Fruits of Victory', 1921), he noted that fears of 'Grand Illusion' proved to be justified. In the 'hidden killers' ( 'The Unseen Assassins', 1933) E. demonstrated the harmful effects of imperialism, nationalism and patriotism. He also invented a board game, clearly sets out the principles of economy and credit.
In 1920, Mr.. E. first time put his candidacy to the parliament from the Labor Party in Nottinghamshire. Only a fourth attempt in 1929. earned him a place in the House of Commons of Northern Bradford County, but already in 1931. He left parliament, convinced that may be more useful as a writer and speaker. At the same time E. was knighted, which was recognition of his public activity.
In 1934, Mr.. E. received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1933, not awarded due to lack of candidate. Introducing the award-Christian Lange described the E. as' one of those ... who paves the way for reforms that will then be translated statesmen '. Lange said that 'few have done so much to dispel the fog, clouded our path, as did Sir Norman'. British Ambassador to Norway Cecil Dormer accepted the award on behalf of EG, while bolevshego. In his Nobel lecture E. touched on the causes of war: isolationism, propaganda, fear, lack of will of the people. The threat to peace stems ... not in nature, - he concluded. - The threat of the one hiding in the minds and hearts of the people '.
As an opponent of the war, E. not consider himself a pacifist. The armed forces remain a reality, "he said, 'the real challenge is to organize them and take'. He believed that the system of collective security, open to all countries in tonnes. h. and Nazi Germany, will help prevent war. He challenged the view of British socialists that the wars can be eliminated, except by abolishing private property.
When Italy in 1935. invaded Ethiopia, E. sharply criticized the neutral stand of the British Government. Later, he began a relentless campaign against the policy of appeasement of Hitler, which was held by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. According to E., she seemed to say to the aggressor: 'Kill often, but quickly - get out unscathed'. Anticipating that "Europe will take full control of Hitler ', he demanded that the government open its doors to Jewish refugees and sheltered himself from the family in his home on North Island off the coast of Essex.
. When Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939, E
. offered his services to the Ministry of Information, which sent him to the United States to win support for the British military effort. In New York he remained until 1951, gave lectures and held talks with U.S. political figures, has written.
After the war, E. advocated a gradual movement towards a world government through the United Nations, although he regarded it less effective than the League of Nations. Disappointed his Korean War and unhealthy situation in the U.S. since the anti-Communist crusade of Senator Joseph McCarthy.
Returning to England, E. settled in the Fern Hill (Sarrey). Here he continued to work on books and articles, . which emerged the concern of anti-colonialism and the growing influence peoples 'Third World', . separatism and whose propensity for violence threatened international cooperation, . so much to E,
. Increasingly, he criticized Israel for such acts of terrorism, as the killing of Count Bernadotte - UN mediator in the Palestinian conflict. In an effort to help Palestinian refugees, E. appealed to the Arab groups in the United States, but to no avail.
His health was all the worse, and E. became less available for lectures. In 1958, Mr.. the fall, he injured his leg, and two years later was hospitalized with hip fracture, but found the strength to speak at the University of Chicago at a conference on reducing international tensions. In 1961. agreement was reached to transfer the archive e. at Teachers College, Ball State's (now University) in Muncie (Indiana). Latest trip to the U.S. E. made in 1966, when the archive is officially handed over and received an honorary law degree.
E. died in a private hospital Croydon (Sarrey) October 7, 1967