Houssay, Bernardo( Argentine physiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1947)
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Biography Houssay, Bernardo
April 10, 1887, Mr.. - September 21, 1971
Argentine physiologist Bernardo Alberto Houssay was born in Buenos Aires and was the fourth of eight children of Klara (Lafontaine), and Alberto Houssay Houssay, lawyer. Parents, French by birth, immigrated to Argentina for a year before the birth of Bernardo. As a result, W., precocious child, at an early age spoke French and Spanish. Visiting private schools in Buenos Aires, he impressed his teachers' intelligence, ability to perform complex work and amazing memory.
After completion of secondary education in Kolegov Britannica in 1901. U. at age 14 was enrolled in the School of Pharmacy at the University of Buenos Aires. Three years later, he received a bachelor's degree in pharmacy and enrolled in a university medical school. To feel more confident in their chosen profession, he worked as a pharmacist at a local hospital and, despite his busy, found time for athletics, becoming a champion in the race for 800 meters. Studying medicine, I. caring for patients with acromegaly (a disease caused by increased secretion of growth hormone of the anterior pituitary). This work has generated his interest in endocrinology - the science of the structure, functions of the endocrine glands and their metabolic products (hormones). The main endocrine glands of mammals are the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pituitary, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes. The pituitary is not only regulates the activities of other endocrine glands, but also affects the metabolic processes.
As a medical student, I. developed an experimental method for studying pituitary hormones, and thereafter he wrote his doctoral dissertation 'Study of the physiological effect of extracts of pituitary' ( 'Studies of the Physiological Action of Pituitary Extracts'), . which was published in 1910,
. In the same year he was awarded the Faculty Award for scientific research pituitary.
. In 1909, a year before receiving medical degree at the University of Buenos Aires, he was appointed acting professor of physiology at the Veterinary Faculty
. This appointment has caused discontent among the faculty, t. to. At this time. was not a doctor of medicine and had no degree Veterinary. However, his enthusiasm, extensive knowledge, high quality teachers and researchers soon won him popularity in the veterinary faculty, and in 1912, at age 25, he became a full professor of physiology.
In the meantime,. offers private medical practice, in 1913. he was appointed head of the department of clinical medicine at the hospital Olviar, continuing teaching and research at the University of Buenos Aires. Between 1915 and 1919. U. - Head of Department of Experimental Pathology at the Institute of Bacteriology, . government laboratory, . where he is studying the impact on the physiological functions of poison snakes, . spiders and scorpions, and develops specific antidotes against them,
. For studying the properties of a strong poison curare, causing muscle relaxation and used in anesthesia, he gets international recognition.
In 1919, after the appointment of a professor of physiology at the University of Buenos Aires, y. left private practice and work at the Institute of bacteriology, to devote all his time to perform the duties of the faculty and medical research. In his post he has held numerous administrative reforms, turning the department of physiology at the institute, able to conduct experimental research. One of its initiatives to improve the quality of teaching in medical school was the replacement of the traditional faculty with part-time for permanent staff, this innovation was gradually adopted in all universities in Latin America,
. Developed by U. Playing about 250 students were trained in his laboratory during this period.
For 20-bit and 30-ies. U. conducted detailed studies of the endocrine, cardiovascular and respiratory systems and digestive. This work earned him the reputation as a brilliant physiologist, standing at the forefront of medical research. 'I never worried about priorities - as once remarked one of his colleagues - I. always been among the first '.
The most significant are presented his research of the endocrine system. As the first scientist who demonstrated the leading role of pituitary, Y. revealed its regulatory interaction with other endocrine glands. In the first papers I. in this area used surgical removal of the pituitary (pituitary gland) in experimental animals, followed by preparation of extracts from its tissue, . which in turn was introduced to other animals for evaluating the physiological effects.,
. particularly interested in the influence of pituitary hormones on carbohydrate metabolism and their relationship with diabetes (a disease caused by lack of insulin in the body). Deficiency of insulin, in turn, causes an increase in blood glucose levels, reducing the disposal of its cells, and in severe cases leads to an increase in the number of allocated urine, accompanied by thirst and loss of body weight. In 1921, Mr.. Insulin was first isolated and prepared for clinical use, Frederick G. Banting and John ZH.R. MacLeod University of Toronto. In the early 20-ies. U. and received a standardized dose of insulin in tissue extracts from islet cells of the pancreas.
In 1924, Mr.. He and his colleagues found that removing the pituitary gland in experimental animals (mostly dogs and local toads) leads to hypersensitivity to insulin, ie. in the absence of circulating pituitary hormones in the blood, spent the dose of insulin decreased the glucose. Based on these data have. concluded, . that insulin and pituitary hormones have opposite effects on blood glucose and its utilization by cells, and moreover, . maintaining normal glucose levels and its metabolism is the interaction of pituitary hormones and insulin,
. In further their studies in. found that surgical removal of the pituitary gland in experimental animals reduces the severity of diabetes. These results led to the emergence of the main provisions of the hormonal systems of regulation.
Y. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947. 'for the discovery of the role of hormones of the anterior pituitary in the metabolism of glucose'. He shared the prize with Charles V. Cori and Gerty T. Cory. Finished reading his Nobel lecture, Y. summarized the research role of the pituitary: 'The metabolism of carbohydrates and other metabolic processes are regulated by the balance maintained by secretion of several endocrine glands, - he said. - Diabetes and other metabolic disorders are the result of violations of endocrine balance. There are many unsolved problems in this area, but no doubt we can say that the pituitary gland - one of the most important organs in the regulation of metabolism and is central to the endocrine system. "
. When the government of President Ramon Castillo was overthrown in a military coup in 1943, Y
. joined a large group of scientists who have addressed the authorities to return to constitutional rule and democratic elections. U. and other colleagues who participated in this action were dismissed from the University. Left without a job, they organized a private research laboratory, headed by U. Two years later, was proclaimed a general amnesty, and U. returned to the post of professor of physiology at the University of Buenos Aires. According to the adopted soon after his recovery laws in 1946. he was asked to resign, but he continued to conduct research at the Institute of Experimental Biology and Medicine, and in 1955. again received an academic appointment in the University of Buenos Aires. Resigned in the following year, he was director of the Institute and was appointed president of the National Society of Technical Research of Argentina.
A tireless scholar, in his life have. published (alone or co-authored) about 2 thousand. papers. In 1970. He was elected to the admiring colleagues from around the world willing to pay him tribute, honorary president of the VIII Congress of the International Society of Diabetes, held in Buenos Aires.
Working at the Institute of Bacteriology, Y. collaborated with Marina Angelina Katan, a chemist, whom he married in 1920, they had three sons, who later became doctors. U. died in 1971. the age of 84.
Awarded numerous awards for their achievements, have. Bailey received the Medal of the Royal College of Physicians of London (1947) and Dale Medal of the London Society of Endocrinologists (1960). He was awarded honorary degrees from 28 universities, including Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard and the University of Paris. U. was a member of the Argentine National Academy of Medicine, the Academy of Spiritual and Political Sciences of Buenos Aires and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, as well as foreign honorary member of numerous professional societies, the U.S. and Europe.