FinCEN (Finsen), Niels( Danish physiotherapist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1903)
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Biography FinCEN (Finsen), Niels
December 15, 1860, Mr.. - September 24, 1904
Danish physiotherapist Niels Ryberg Finse was born in Torshavn in the Faroe Islands - in the part of Denmark, which lies about 300 km north of the British Isles. Although both of his parents - Hans Shteyngrim FinCEN, a civil servant in the Faeroes, and Johann (Froman) Finse - were of Icelandic origin, mother tongue F. childhood was the Danish. At the end of primary school in Torshavn, F. enrolled in a preparatory school in Herlufeholme (Denmark). He really did not like this school treated the students of junior classes, which adversely affected its performance.
Estimates boy had improved after he went to school in Reykjavik, he was also a good shooter. However, even in childhood motor activity F. was severely limited due to poor health. Living in Iceland, just below the Arctic Circle, S. from childhood to realize the importance of sunlight to all living things. He noticed that the longer he is in the sun, the better his being. So he came to the conclusion that living beings, apparently, is very susceptible to sunlight. 'Let the sun suddenly proglyanut through the clouds on an overcast day and see how things will change around you! - He would write later. - Insects, just very sleepy, awake and stretch their wings, lizards and snakes crawl out to bask in the sun; zaschebechut birds. And we ourselves will feel as if he dropped a heavy load '.
Having entered the University of Copenhagen in 1882, F. began his medical studies at a time when, thanks to the discoveries of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch's bacterial theory of disease arose. In the first year of his stay in Copenhagen, EF. showing symptoms of the disease, which was originally incorrectly taken for heart disease. In fact, as it turned out later, he suffered from liver psevdotsirrozom Peak - a chronic progressive liver damage, arising as a result of pericarditis. Despite deteriorating health condition, F. completed training willows 1891. received a medical degree at the University of Copenhagen. Subsequently he was appointed Coroner for the Department of Surgery. By this time he also developed and ascites - a condition in which fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity, and he was confined to a wheelchair.
In 1892, Mr.. F. married Ingeborg Balslev, the daughter of a Lutheran priest in Ribe (Denmark), the couple had four children. Around this time, F. began to study the therapeutic effects of light. From previous research, he knew that light retards the growth of some colonies of bacteria and may even cause their death. In 1889, Mr.. One Swedish scientist found that ultraviolet rays cause more severe effects on biological tissue than the infrared.
Approaching the subject so as befits a naturalist, F. conducted surveillance and obtained the results on the effects of sunlight on insects, salamanders, tadpoles and amphibian embryos. During the experiments, he discovered that sunlight falling on the tail of a tadpole, can lead to inflammation of tissues and that ultraviolet rays have much greater impact on the embryos of frogs than infrared. He came to the conclusion that the light - or lack thereof - may have a therapeutic effect.
By 1893, Mr.. F. engaged in promoting the use of red light to treat the effects of smallpox. He argued that only the sunlight irritating high-frequency spectrum of the radiation passed through a red filter, can accelerate the healing of skin lesions and thereby prevent the formation of ugly scars and scars. After the demonstration of 'red room' is successful, F. left the university department of surgery and devoted himself entirely to the medical aspects of light therapy. Papers published them on this subject in 1893 and 1894. Contributed to the consolidation of its international reputation in this field.
By expanding the boundaries of their studies, F. began to experiment with sources of artificial light, especially with Carbon Arc lamps. He wanted to find, . whether they would be effective for the treatment of common lupus - almost impossible to treatment of skin disease, . caused tuberculocidal and so often disfigures the appearance of their victims, ,
. In 1895, signing an agreement on the use of equipment with the company 'Copenhagen-Electric Light Works', F. started to treat lupus, patients subjected two-hour daily exposure of ultraviolet rays from the carbon arc lamp DC power 25 A. After many months of affected skin began to decline and there were clear signs of recovery of patients.
In 1896, Mr.. Copenhagen was founded Finsenovsky Institute of phototherapy, the director of which was F. The Institute was developed treatments using finsenovskih arc baths, as well as therapies have increased the therapeutic dose of ultraviolet radiation with minimal damage to tissues. In the next five years, 800 patients with lupus have been treated in Finsenovskom Institute, 50% recovered completely, 45% noted a significant improvement. F. was right when he predicted that in the future the disease in Denmark will be eliminated.
F. received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903. 'in recognition of his work in the treatment of disease - especially lupus - with concentrated light radiation, which opened to medical science broad new horizons'. 'This method was a giant step forward - said in a welcome speech to. Merner of the Karolinska Institute, - and ... led to such advances in the field of medicine that will never be forgotten in the history of this science '. F., however, was too ill to attend the ceremony or to speak with Nobel lecture.
To improve health, F. resorted to different diets, alternating between the consumption of large and small quantities of salt or fluid. Despite this, he felt worse. Summer 1904. dawned in Denmark unusually sunny. Still believing in the healing properties of sunlight, F. built on the roof of his home in Copenhagen, a special room, where sunbathing. He died in Copenhagen at the hands of his wife at the age of 43 from liver psevdotsirroza Peak.
During his short but fruitful life F. received many awards and honors, he was a member of several scientific societies, in t.ch. Denmark, Iceland, Russia and Germany. In 1899. F. became a knight of the Order of Dannebrog and in 1904. Cameron received the award and honor to give lectures at Edinburgh University.