Werner Forssmann( German doctor Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1956)
Comments for Werner Forssmann
Biography Werner Forssmann
August 29, 1904, Mr.. - June 1, 1979
German physician Werner Theodor Otto Forssmann was born in Berlin in the family lawyer Julius Forssmann and Emmy (Gindenberg) Forsman. Elementary education he received in Berlin Askaniyskoy school. In 1916, when F. 12 years old, his father - the captain of Germany army - was killed in a Galician battle. In 1922, Mr.. F. became a student of the Medical Faculty of Berlin University. The economic situation in the country after the war was such that F. was forced to find funds to do a temporary job in the bank. Nevertheless, he passed the preliminary medical examination, and in two years internship in 1928, and public examinations. A year later, after defending a thesis on the impact of therapeutic feeding for the maintenance of serum cholesterol and the number of red blood cells, he was awarded a medical degree at Berlin University.
In 1929, Mr.. F. entered Ebersvaldskuyu surgical clinic near Berlin, . where he began a series of experiments, . aimed at, . to demonstrate the anatomical and functional features of the human heart with his illness with catheterization,
. This method consists in the fact that in the heart through a vein catheter. Before experiments F. in this area at that time was made very little. In 1861, Mr.. Two French physiologist had cardiac catheterization in experimental animals. Later, . in 1912, . German doctors have tried to introduce a catheter into the abdominal aorta (part of the aorta, . the main vessel of the arterial system, . located in the abdominal cavity) Women, . suffering from puerperal sepsis (complication of postpartum infection), . with a view to more effective drug therapy,
. Women do not suffer any harmful effects from this procedure. In 1928, Mr.. Italian researchers introduced a catheter into the heart of experimental animals and dead people. In 1929, tested on the corpses of similar experiments with the introduction of a catheter in the pulmonary heart, F. set a goal to prove the safety of this method in clinical practice. He persuaded one of the staff Ebersvaldskoy surgical clinic to help him carry out a trial basis this procedure on a. Colleague managed to introduce a catheter (tube length of about 65 cm and a diameter of 1 mm) in the elbow vein F. Beginning to advance the catheter toward the heart, he feared that it might be too dangerous, stop experience.
A week later, without obtaining permission or even notifying her supervisor, F. independently carried out at a cardiac catheterization. In the presence of only a nurse F. had local anesthesia, made the cut, exposed a vein, a catheter introduced and promoted it for about 60 centimeters, until he went into the right atrium. In X-ray department with the help of her sister, who was holding a mirror, F., looking at the screen X-ray machine, convinced that the tip of the catheter has reached the heart. Subsequently, he has done several similar experiments, bringing their total number to nine. On two occasions he injected into the blood contrast agent, allowing him to make a much more detailed X-ray images of the heart than with conventional radiography. Upon completion of this series of experiments, F. an article 'sounding right heart' ( 'Probing the Right Heart'), . which described a method of catheterization and considered its potential for studying the anatomical and functional characteristics of the cardiovascular system in normal conditions and its diseases,
. Trying to improve my technique, F. began a series of experiments using laboratory animals, but lack of funds forced him to the clinic to stop the experiments.
F. reported the results of their research at the XXV Conference Germanskogo Surgical Society in April 1931. However, the German medical authorities did not take into account the importance of his experiments. A year later he was hired to Ferdinand Zauerbruhu a Berlin hospital for the poor. Soon, however, when one of the Berlin newspapers published a sensational report on his research in Ebersvaldskoy clinic at V. came under a barrage of criticism from colleagues. Zauerbruh reached that called him a charlatan and fired. F. was so outraged by what had happened, he decided to interrupt their studies.
Meanwhile, in the United States Andre Cournand and Dickinson in. Richards College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University learned of the experiments, F. in Ebersvaldskoy clinic. And their position was directly opposite to the one occupied by German doctors. Deploying a 30-ies. extensive research program, they finally achieved those goals, which were originally set F. In 1941, Mr.. Cournand performed the first successful U.S. heart catheterization. In the late 40's and early 50-ies. developed S. catheterization with a subsequent X-rays were normal diagnostic and research methods.
Interrupting his studies of the cardiovascular system, F. in 1932. began to specialize in the field of urology operations under the leadership of Charles Hoysha Hospital Rudolph Virhofa. A year later he married a urologist Elsbel Engel, later the couple were born six children. Later F. became head of the Surgical Clinic of the city hospital in Dresden-Friedrichstadt and in Berlin, Robert Koch Hospital, where he was involved in surgery and urology up to the beginning of the Second World War. During the war, F. served as a doctor in the Wehrmacht, in terms of wounded, was promoted to major medical services. In early 1945, when it became apparent early defeat of Germany, F. surrendered to the Americans. Liberated at the end of the war, he spent some time in the felling area in the Black Forest, and then returned to his wife, along with surgical practice.
In 1950, Mr.. Forsman moved to a small town on the Rhine Bad Kreuznach, later F. call his work there's slave labor insurance a doctor '. In 1954, Mr.. he published an article on the history of the method of cardiac catheterization, with special emphasis on diseases of the lungs.
In 1952, Mr.. F., Cournand and Richards were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries concerning heart catheterization and studies of pathological changes in the circulation '. In his Nobel lecture 'The role of cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography in the development of modern medicine (' The Role of Heart Catheterization and Angicardiography in the Development of Modern Medicine ') F. briefly list the major achievements of Cardiology since the Renaissance. He also raised the question of the potential dangers of catheterization of heart and insisted that its use was limited to only those patients who need it to establish the diagnosis.
. Two years after receiving the Nobel Prize, F
. was appointed head of the surgery department at the Evangelical Hospital in Dц+sseldorf. Since 1962. until his death he remained a member of the executive committee Germanskogo Surgical Society. He left his surgical practice, having gone to resign in 1970. F. died June 1, 1979, Mr.. on a resort in the Black Forest after suffering a heart attack.
The award-winning Medal of Leibniz Germanskoy Academy of Sciences (1954) and the gold medal of the Society of Surgical Medicine Ferrara, Italy (1968), F. was a member of the American College of Chest Medicine, Germanskogo Society of Urology and the Helgoland Association of Child Health, he was also elected an honorary member of the Swedish Society of Cardiology.