Huggins (Huggins), Charles B.( The American surgeon and an oncologist of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1966)
Comments for Huggins (Huggins), Charles B.
Biography Huggins (Huggins), Charles B.
genus. 22. September 1901
The American surgeon and oncologist Charles Brenton Huggins was born in Halifax (Canada) and was the eldest son by Bessie (Spencer) Huggins and Charles Edward Huggins, a pharmacist. After completion of primary education in local schools, he enrolled at Acadia University in Volfville, who graduated in 1920,. with the degree of Bachelor. Then he enrolled at Harvard Medical School in Boston (Massachusetts), and four years later received a medical degree.
During the next two years, X. was a surgeon-intern hospital University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. In 1926, Mr.. He was appointed professor of surgery at the University of Michigan Medical School, and in 1927. moved to the newly opened faculty of the University of Chicago Medical School at the same position. In 1929, Mr.. he became an assistant professor in 1933. - Associate Professor and in 1936. - A full professor.
In Chicago, A. specialized in urology and to improve practical skills in 1930. attended the Lister Institute in London, and then worked in Germany under the leadership of Otto Warburg. A few years earlier, Warburg discovered that the tumor cells in contrast to normal derive energy from anaerobic glycolysis. In the process of working together for Research on Cancer matured friendship X. and Warburg.
Returning to the University of Chicago after a year's stay abroad, X. with their colleagues engaged in the development of the experimental method of transformation of normal cells of the connective tissue in the tumor and continued these studies for several years. However, interest in diseases of male urogenital system led him to the study of prostate. The normal function of this gland, located in the pelvis, between the bottom of the bladder and rectum, is to develop a secret, a component of semen. The first experiments were carried out X. in dogs, the only animals in which, besides man, can develop cancer of the body.
In 1939, Mr.. H. and his colleagues were able to surgically isolate the prostate in dogs. By measuring the volume and chemical composition of its secretion under different hormonal conditions, . they found, . that testosterone, . steroid hormone from the androgen group, . stimulates growth and secretory activity of the prostate, . whereas estrogens, . ovarian hormones, . contrary, . constrain its growth.,
. These data provided a promising avenue of treatment for prostate cancer, which often occurs in men older than 50 years
. Typically, the disease is clinically manifest violation of urination and metastases in bone, liver and lungs. In 1941, Mr.. H. together with two of his students, KV. Hodges and VV. Scott, published three works on the impact of testosterone and estrogen therapy, and castration on the course of prostate cancer. H. found that testosterone can accelerate growth and metastasis of tumors, whereas estrogen and castration often inhibit these processes. Among the first 20 patients with prostate cancer in the group whose treatment was carried out by estrogens or castration, the four spent more than 12 years.
. Measuring the level of acid phosphatase (an enzyme secreted by the normal prostate gland) and alkaline phosphatase (an enzyme, high activity of which is noted in the bone tissue) in the blood, X
. found that the concentration of both enzymes significantly increased in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. On this basis, he suggested that the level of these enzymes in the blood is a valuable clinical index of activity and effectiveness of cancer treatment. The discovery that estrogen therapy may affect the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer, was the first clinical evidence of the fact that the growth of some tumors depend on the hormones of endocrine glands. This method, developed by H., quickly became popular in oncological practice. The first pharmacological agent of the group of estrogens used in the clinical treatment of prostate cancer, became dietilstilbestrol, first synthesized in England. The results of its application have resulted in X. the creation of two hypotheses, . on the biological development of cancer: first, , . growth of some forms of cancer depends on the hormonal status, . to be normal, both quantitatively, . and in qualitative terms.,
. In 1951, Mr.
. H. Benmeyevskoy appointed director of the Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, where he began studying the influence of hormones on the development of breast cancer. During 50-ies. He and his colleagues were able to show, . that 30 ... 40% of patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer bilateral adrenalectomy (removal of the adrenal glands) in combination with bilateral ovariectomy (surgical removal of both ovaries) leads to an objective clinical improvement.,
. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966. 'for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostate cancer'. He shared the award with Peyton Rous. In a speech at the presentation of George Klein of the Karolinska Institute said that the opening of X. are 'completely new type of cancer therapy, based on the introduction of low-toxicity natural hormones and able to assist the category of patients, previously hopeless'.
X. summed up his work in his Nobel lecture 'Endocrine-induced regression of cancer' ( 'Endocrine-Induced Regression of Cancers'). 'The impact on the development of cancer by endocrine methods based on the three positions, - he said. - First, some types of cancer cells in their response to changes in hormonal status are significantly different from cells from which they occurred. Secondly, some forms of cancer are hormone-and the disposal of these hormones, such cells die. Thirdly, the development of some forms of cancer is inhibited with the introduction of large amounts of certain hormones.
For outstanding achievements in medical research in 1962. H. was awarded a Ph.D., but in 1969. He resigned from his post as director of Benmeyevskoy laboratory. In recent years the work of the University of Chicago X. returned to the research laboratory, where he studied experimental models of tumors, in t. h.
mammary tumors in mice, focusing on their hormonal and chemical dependency. In 1971, Mr.. in Genzano di Roma (Italy) was set up laboratory for Cancer Research, named in honor of Charles Huggins, and the next year X. was appointed president of Acadia University and has held this position until the retirement in 1979
In 1927, Mr.. H. married Margaret Villman; they have a daughter and son. In 1933. He became an American citizen. H. loves music, especially works by Bach and Mozart. Colleagues regard him as a man highly educated and easy to communicate.
X. is a member of the American Association of Surgeons, Royal College of Surgeons in London, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. He has honorary doctorate from Acadia University, Washington, Turin, Aberdeen, Yale, Leeds and Trinity College. He was awarded medals of Charles L. Meyer of the National Academy of Sciences (1944), . Gold Medal, American Society of Cancer Research (1953), . Walker Prize of the Royal College of Surgeons in London (1961), . Albert L Asker Prize for clinical research (1963), . international awards Gardner Fund (1966) and many others.,