Hall (Holley), Robert W.( American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1968)
Comments for Hall (Holley), Robert W.
Biography Hall (Holley), Robert W.
genus. January 28, 1922
American biochemist Robert William Holley was born in Urbana (Illinois) and was one of four sons of teachers Viola Esther (Wolf) and Charles Elmer Holley. Robert received his primary education in the schools of Illinois, California and Idaho. In his youth, he emerged a strong interest in biology. After graduating in 1938. High School in Urbana, he joined the University of Illinois to study chemistry. After 4 years he received the title of bachelor's and moved to Cornell University to complete research on organic chemistry. At the same time, X. two years he served as an assistant in chemistry and researcher in chemistry at a medical college.
During the Second World War X. stopped school and joined a group of scientists from the American service development research, which was first synthesized penicillin - an antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. After the war, X. was sent to the National Research Council at Cornell, where in 1947. received his doctorate in philosophy.
Scholarship of the American Chemical Society made it possible for X. two years to continue research at Washington State College (now University) in Pulmene. In 1948, Mr.. He returned to Cornell and became an assistant professor of organic chemistry at the New York Agricultural Experimental Station. Investigations of these years, conducted by H., contributed to the fact that he began to study biochemistry of nucleic acids, substances that control the formation of protein organism. In 1955, Cornell received a sabbatical year for research, he continued the study of nucleic acids at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena (Caltech), thanks to a grant from the Guggenheim Foundation he. There he began experiments, resulting from his previous work and resulted in 10 years to determine the chemical structure of ribonucleic acid (RNA).
. In addition to the central role in the synthesis of proteins, RNA transfers genetic information from the cell nucleus
. Genetics as a science emerged in 1866, when Gregor Mendel published his observations on the inheritance of color flowers at the garden pea. Mendel believed that the 'elements', now called genes, are responsible for the inheritance of the body physical signs. Opening of nucleic acids in 1869. led to the identification of the XX century. RNA, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Genes are composed of DNA, which controls the synthesis of proteins in the cell and thus it controls the biochemical processes. In 1953, Mr.. Francis Crick and James D. Watson determined the double helical structure and created a spatial model of the DNA molecule that resembles a spiral staircase. Helix of DNA consists of two chains of nucleotides linked by pairs of bases in the form of 'steps stairs': adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Each base is connected only with a specific base in the opposite chain, this sequence forms the genetic code of DNA. Triplet base contains the genetic instructions for the introduction of a single amino acid in the protein molecule, which is a chain of amino acids. The gene contains numerous basic triplets and the genetic instructions for the synthesis of entire protein molecules.
Like DNA, RNA consists of chains of nucleotides. There are three types of RNA: Reporting, ribosomal and transport. Messenger RNA copies the genetic code from DNA in the cell nucleus and carries the genetic instructions for protein synthesis to the ribosomes, where proteins and are synthesized in the cytoplasm. Transport of RNA, which contains a specific nucleotide sequence for each amino acid, it captures the intended nucleotide code of amino acids and transported to the ribosomes. Thus, three types of RNA interact with each other in the synthesis of protein molecules.
In 1964, Mr.. H. was appointed professor and head of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cornell University. During the three years prior to this event, Marshall U. Nirenberg opened the main triplet code for amino acid phenylalanine. At Cornell X. and his colleagues have continued their experiments on Nirenberg synthesize molecules transport RNA nucleotide sequence, specific for phenylalanine. Scientists have determined its nucleotide sequence that can be compared with the clarification of meaning sequences fused in a foreign language offers when it is divided into words, and words - the letters. The results of these studies in 1965. were published in the journal 'Sains' ( 'Science'). The article began with the words: 'We establish the complete nucleotide sequence of transporting alanine RNA isolated from yeast. This is the first nucleic acid, whose structure is known. "
X. and his colleagues also found that the transport of RNA is biologically active secondary structure in addition to the primary. Primary structure is a sequence of bases in the nucleotide chain. Secondary structure of RNA transport shows the locations where the spiral turns are in contact with each other. This structure resembles trifoliate clover. The sequence of nucleotides in the 'average leaf' complementary to that of the mRNA. This complementarity between transport and messenger RNA provides the correct location of amino acids in the protein.
X. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968. from Khar Gobind Card and Marshall Nirenberg 'for deciphering the genetic code and its role in protein synthesis'. In a lecture at the presentation of Peter Reichardt of the Karolinska Institute said that "[Holly] is one of the discoverers of a special type of nucleic acid, which ... has the ability to read the genetic code and translates it into protein alphabet '. He added that 'A study. represents the first determination of the complete chemical structure of the biologically active nucleic acid. Deciphering the genetic code and the elucidation of its function are the main achievements over the past 20 years intensively developing molecular biology '.
Scholarship of the National Scientific Society allowed X. to 1966. in Solkovskom Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego (California). In 1968. He became a professor of molecular biology of the American Cancer Society and Fellow of the Institute Solkovskogo, continuing to study the mechanisms of biological control of growth of mammalian cells. In 1969. he was awarded the rank of associate professor, University of California.
In 1945, Mr.. H. married to Anna Dvorkin, a teacher of mathematics, they had a son. H. loves to travel with his family.
Numerous awards X. include the Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1965), . award for outstanding achievement of the Ministry of Agriculture (1965) and the premium on the molecular biology of the steel company the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1967),
. He - a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society, American Society of Biochemistry and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Kuik College and University of Illinois assigned him honors.