Charles Scott Sherrington (Sherrington Charles Scott)( English neurophysiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1932)
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Biography Charles Scott Sherrington (Sherrington Charles Scott)
November 27, 1857, Mr.. - March 4, 1952
English neurophysiologist Charles Scott Sherrington was born in a suburb of London Islington. His parents were James Sherrington, the country doctor in Keystere (a suburb of Great Yarmouth), and Anne Sherrington (Brooks). Father Charles and his two younger brothers died when they were still children. Some time later, Anne Sherrington married Keyleba Rose, a doctor, archaeologist, geologist and expert in classical languages and classical literature. He managed to interest Charles in art, history and philosophy, and influenced the choice of medical career.
After studying five years in grammar school, W. 1876 Mr.. entered the London Hospital St.. Thomas, to study medicine. In 1879, Mr.. He was a volunteer at the physiologist Michael Foster at Cambridge University. A year later, his family's financial situation has improved and W. able to enter Gonvill-end-Kayus College of the University.
In 1884, Mr.. SH. published the first of his 320 scientific works dedicated to the specialized functions of different parts of the brain. Studies, . held them together with the employee, John Foster, Newport Langley, . used animals, . in which using the method, . Advanced German neurologist Frederick Goltz, . produced partial removal of the brain - decerebration,
. At the end of 1884. SH. went to Strasbourg to study this method at the very Goltz. The following year he received a medical degree and was sent to Spain and Italy for the study of epidemics of cholera. The desire to continue this work resulted in W. in 1886. in Berlin, where he studied with Rudolf Virchow's pathology and bacteriology at the Robert Koch. Returning to London, W. 1887 Mr.. began to lecture on the physiology of the system in the hospital of St.. Thomas.
The greatest interest in W. evoked Neurophysiology. Under the influence of U. Gaskell, who gave a lecture at Cambridge University, he began to study the reflexes and physiology of the spinal cord. Reflex, such as lifting of hands from the fire - a reaction to external stimulus, which takes place without the participation of consciousness. At that time, scientists believed that the reflexes can be explained purely mechanically, without delving into the processes of consciousness. Research, . Goltz conducted on animals with fully remote brain, . convincingly proved, . many reflexes are closed only in the spinal cord - Central Nervous System, . study which is much easier, . than brain,
. The first work W. on the physiology of the spinal cord appeared in 1891, when he was appointed chief physician at Brown Institute of Pathology in London. This institute studied animal disease
At that time, little was known about the anatomical distribution of the roots of spinal nerves, ie. motor and sensory nerve trunks emerging from the spinal cord at the level of each vertebra. SH. spent many years in order to map the innervation (nerve endings of) different parts of the body for each root. To do this, he either cut or that root and watched what functions fall under this, or experimented with electrical stimulation of the rootlets.
This laborious and thankless job at first sight led to a number of important discoveries. In 1894, Mr.. SH. found that only 2 / 3 of all the nerve fibers going to the muscles, are the motor, ie. carrying the team to the muscles of the central nervous system. The rest - is sensitive (proprioceptive) fibers, for which information comes from the muscles in the central nervous system. In addition, he found that the nerves from each root, there are usually more than one group of muscles and in turn each muscle receives fibers from several roots. This muscle works as a unit under the control of the nervous system.
In 1895, Mr.. SH. became professor of physiology at the University of Liverpool. Here he used the anatomical data obtained by him as the basis for work on the reflexes of the spinal cord, in particular the well-known knee-jerk reflex. He conducted experiments on the so-called spinal monkeys or cats, operated by the method of Holtz, these animals could be studied isolated spinal reflexes that are not subjected to any influence from the brain.
. A detailed study of the functional relationships between the various nerves became a landmark in neurology
. Data W. revealed the main regularities of the nervous system. One of these patterns is the so-called reciprocal innervation and reciprocal inhibition of antagonistic muscles. Thus, when the patellar reflex leg bend, you should not only decrease the extensor muscles, but also relax the muscles-flexors. SH. found that the nerves that control the functions of these two muscle groups, interact in such a way that excitation causes some inhibition of other. Similar relationships exist in other parts of the nervous system. How to write W. later, 'the whole quantitative range of functions of the spinal cord and brain, apparently, depends on the interaction between the two fundamental processes - excitation and inhibition, each of them is equally important. "
At the presentation of W. the activities and interaction of nerves affected by the work of neuroanatomy, Santiago Ramon y Cajal, with which W. met during a trip to Spain in 1886. Ramon y Cajal believed that the nervous system is not a continuous network of fibers, and consists of individual nerve cells, or neurons, form an intermittent connection. SH. realized that his data on the physiology of reflexes can be explained from the position of excitation transfer through contact between nerve cells. In 1897. He called the area of such contact synapse. This fundamental concept was the link between the study of reflexes and electrophysiology.
In 1906, Mr.. SH. formulated the basic principles of neurophysiology in the book "Integrative activity of the nervous system '(' The Integrative Action of the Nervous System '), which specialists in the field of neurology and the study still. In 1913, Mr.. SH. He was appointed professor of physiology at Oxford University and stayed on it for 23 years until retirement. His research in the field of neurophysiology were interrupted during World War II, when he had to work the head of the Council on fatigue of workers in industry. SH. also examined such issues as the integration of reflexes in the formation of coordinated action, the importance of inhibition in the nervous system, and develop new methods and equipment for research. Among employees with whom W. worked at Oxford University, were neuroscientists Edgar D. Adrian and John K. Eccles.
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1932. was awarded to Adrian and W. 'for their discoveries concerning the functions of the neurons'. Researcher at the Karolinska Institute Goran Liliestrand a congratulatory speech said: 'The work [Sherrington] opened a new era in the physiology of the nervous system'. He also added that these findings 'are crucial to understanding many diseases of the nervous system'.
W. was not only an excellent researcher, but also a great teacher. He liked to remind students that the 'study of the human world of the senses, apparently, been overtaken by a study of the mind'. Lectures and demonstrations W. had a great influence on many future neuroscientists and neurologists, many of them became outstanding scientists.
In 1892, Mr.. SH. married Ethel Mary Wright. They have one son was born. In 1933. wife W. died.
In 79 years W. retired and continued to give lectures, write papers and worked as a consultant in a number of museums and institutions of health. In 1952, Mr.. He died of a heart attack in Eastbourne (UK).
In 1922, Mr.. SH. was awarded the noble title. In addition, he was awarded the Royal Medal (1905) and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1927). He was a member of the Royal Society, and from 1920 to 1925. - Its president. He was also awarded honorary degrees from Oxford.
. London, Sheffield, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Wales, Edinburgh, Paris, Uppsala, Harvard University, the University of Glasgow, and many other scientific and educational institutions.