Eijkman (Eijkman), Christian( Nederlands doctor Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1929)
Comments for Eijkman (Eijkman), Christian
Biography Eijkman (Eijkman), Christian
August 11, 1858, Mr.. - November 5, 1930
Nederlands physician Christiaan Eijkman was born in Nijkerk. His parents were schoolteachers and Johann Christiaan Eijkman Eijkman Alida (Pool). He was the seventh child in the family. In 17 years, E. received a scholarship to study at the Military Medical School, University of Amsterdam and further service in the army. The University thanks to the great achievements in their studies E. became assistant to the professor who taught physiology. Writing a doctoral thesis 'On the polarization of nerves' ( 'On Polarization of Nerves'), E. in 1883. with honors from University with a degree of Doctor of Medicine. In the same year he married Alte Vigera van Eden, and entered military service.
First E. was appointed medical officer in Semarang (Netherlands East India, at present - Indonesia). Then he was sent to the city Chilachap, located on the southern coast of Java. Two years later his wife died of malaria, and the E. so seriously ill with the disease that in 1885. he had to return to Amsterdam for the restoration of health. After recovery, E. moved to Berlin to work with Robert Koch. Here he acquired extensive experience in the field of bacteriology.
While bacteriology - the science of bacteria - a new, revolutionary science, holds great promise in the study and treatment of many diseases. Initially it was thought that all avitaminosis (disease caused by vitamin deficiency), in particular, beri-beri and pellagra, are infectious. However, the study of pellagra in man by an American physician Joseph Goldberger found that the disease is not caused by an infectious agent.
By this time, Koch discovered the causative agent of tuberculosis is the myco-bacterium. This suggests that many other diseases can also cause these organisms. In the laboratory Koch E. met with two members of the medical commission of the Netherlands - Cornelius Pekelharingom and Clemens Winkler, . had come to Koch for help in studying the problem of beri-beri - diseases, . extremely widespread in the Netherlands East Indies,
. Koch was too busy and could not participate in the commission's work, so he suggested this work E., who willingly accepted the offer and in 1886. went to Java.
The disease beriberi was widely known and disseminated at the time not only in Java. It was described by one of the doctors in the Netherlands early 1600-ies. For many years, the disease remained as a serious problem for Japanese sailors as scurvy - for English. Beri-beri (the name comes from the Sinhalese 'extreme weakness', t. to. during this disease people are so weakened that it becomes incapable of doing anything) is accompanied by paralysis and loss of sensitivity of the lower extremities, and lesions of the heart and lungs, often fatal. Most suffered from beri-beri people who are in a special regime, such as prisons or military camps. In Java prison actually meant a death sentence. At that time there were at least two theories linking the disease beri-beri to diet, which is dominated by rice. According to one of them, in rice contained toxic substances that cause symptoms and disease, in accordance with the second - the cause of beri-beri was not enough content in rice fats and proteins.
. The commander of the Japanese naval forces, personally studied this problem, managed to prevent the incidence of beriberi, and ordered the sailors to feed meat, vegetables and milk instead of the usual diet consisting of raw fish and milled rice
. Many researchers on this basis concluded that the rice is infected and that beriberi is a bacterial nature. That opinion was initially held and E. his group. Once they thought they had found the causative agent of beriberi in the blood of patients. However, when it became clear that conventional disinfection hardly leads to lower morbidity, E. and his colleagues have recognized the error and continued research. In 1887, Mr.. Pekelharing and Winkler returned to their homeland, giving E. for the laboratory of bacteriology and pathology. It consisted of two small rooms and was located in a military hospital in Batavia (in Java). E. was also appointed director of the Japan Medical School.
In the first experiments E. and his colleagues used chicken, t. to. were many and they cost cheap. To the surprise of scientists, the chicks developed paralysis, similar to those in the disease beriberi. At autopsy proved that the cause of paralysis is the simultaneous inflammation of many nerves. E. called this state of polyneuritis. He suggested that the polyneuritis may cause some bacteria, but did not find it in chickens, which were used in the experiment.
Suddenly, in the midst of experiments, all the chickens recovered. Struck by this fact, E. suggested that the reason may lie in the diet of chickens. This hypothesis proved correct. E. later wrote: 'The employee vivarium, as I later discovered, in order to save the chickens fed the rice from the hospital kitchen. Then was replaced by another employee, who refused to feed the 'civilian' chicken 'war' rice '.
Therefore, in the next series of experiments E. decided to test the effect of different types of rice on the incidence of illness. Rice, who lived on the military, was purified (polished), while rice, feeding that led to the recovery of chickens - untreated. When E. again began to feed half of the recovered purified chicken rice, they again became ill polyneuritis; chickens as the second half, receiving unpolished rice, have remained healthy. Moreover, when re-diseased chickens were again fed untreated rice, they again recovered.
Before E. got a question: could the purified and brown rice play any role in the occurrence of beriberi in chelovekaN turned, . that prison inmates, . treated with purified rice, . incidence of beri-beri was 300 times higher, . than prison inmates, . which was used for cooking brown rice,
. In 1890, Mr.. article 'polyneuritis in chickens' ( 'Poly-neuritis in Chickens') E. described the similarities between polyneuritis and beri-beri in humans, as well as data from experiments with rice. He suggested that the purified rice during processing can get any poison.
In Java E. made a number of other discoveries in the field of medicine. Thus, in a series of experiments he has refuted the prevailing notion that the Europeans living in the tropics, by changing the composition of blood and metabolism, allegedly associated with the adaptation of organisms to the hot climate.
In 1896, Mr.. due to illness E. again was forced to return to the Netherlands with his second wife - Bertha Julia Louise van der Kemp, whom he married in 1896, and their son. In 1899. He was appointed Professor of Public Health and Forensic Medicine, Utrecht University. In addition, he studied the problems of city's water supply, urban development, education, and alcoholism and tuberculosis.
Gerry Griyns, a former assistant on Java ME, continued in the laboratory study of Batavia beriberi. In 1901, Mr.. He suggested that the disease is due to the lack of a specific nutrient in some foods. However, for nearly two decades, most major scientists refused to acknowledge that beriberi is caused not by bacteria. In 1911, Mr.. Polish chemist Casimir Funk isolated from rice husk substance that prevents the development of this disease. This substance, which is now called thiamine, or vitamin B1, is not contained in purified from rice husk. Funk suggested for such substances, the term 'vitamins' - from the Latin word 'vita' (life) and 'amine' (N). Although not all vitamins contain nitrogen, this term is preserved.
Studies E. Java, initiated the opening of the treatment of many diseases associated with lack of any substance in food. Frederick Goulend Hopkins called these necessary substances 'supplementary factors'. In 1929, Mr.. E. and Hopkins for his contribution to the discovery of vitamins was awarded the Nobel Prize. However, E., released in 1928. retired, was too weak and not able to personally receive the prize. In 1930. after a long illness he died in Utrecht.
E. was a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, foreign member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and honorary member of the Royal Institute of sanitation. He received several titles of nobility, the Netherlands Government in his honor was established by the Eijkman medal.