Yalow (Yalow), Rosalyn S.( American biophysicist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1977)
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Biography Yalow (Yalow), Rosalyn S.
genus. July 19, 1921
American biophysicist Sasmen Rosalyn Yalow was born in New York, the son of Simon Sasmena, the owner of a paper mill, and Clara (Zipper) Yalow. Primary Rosalyn received in secondary schools in the Bronx, and then enrolled in secondary school Veltona. In 1937, Mr.. She was enrolled at Hunter College (now - part of the City University of New York). It was a time when recent developments of nuclear physics is a general interest. In January 1941, when I. was awarded Bachelor of Arts degree, she became the first woman who graduated from Hunter with a degree in physics. A month later I. was invited by a teacher and graduate student enrolled in the College of Engineering University of Illinois, which was the only woman on the course of 400 students.
. Absorbed in research work, completed doctoral dissertation, I
. become highly qualified installation of devices for the analysis of radioactive substances. This method is later introduced into medical practice. In January 1945,. She was awarded a Ph.D. in the Engineering College, University of Illinois. In the same year she returned to New York for some time worked in a research laboratory, and then taught physics for prospective students at Hunter College. In 1947, Mr.. on the recommendation of Dr. Giyohino feil leading medical physicist, I. received a place a consultant in the department of radiotherapy of state veterans' hospital in the Bronx. In this capacity, she began organizing and equipment of one of the first radioisotope laboratory in the U.S.. In 1950, Mr.. YA. leave room teacher at Hunter College to devote all his time working in a hospital in the Bronx.
In 1950, Mr.. YA. began working with Solomon A. Berson. Combining knowledge Berson on clinical medicine, physiology and anatomy, and skills I. in mathematics and physics, two researchers have begun joint scientific experiments, which lasted 23 пЁп+п¦п¦. They used radio-isotopes for measuring blood volume, studying the distribution of serum proteins in the tissues of the body and the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Soon scientists are interested in diabetes, . and in the course of studies of the disease was developed radioimmunoassay method (RIM), . including the use of radioactive substances for the measurement of various substances in the blood plasma and other body tissues.,
. At that time, insulin was fully accessible, but I
. Berson and know that it is easy to mark radioactive iodine. With the help of tracer can be measured by the rate of disappearance of insulin from the bloodstream (plasma) in diabetes, . counting of radioactive counter radioactivity plasma samples, . obtained at different intervals after administration of radioactive insulin,
. It was believed that the flow of insulin from the pancreas in adults and children, diabetes, reduced and any information in the presence of insulin is quickly disposed of the body. However I. and Berson found that the rate of disappearance of insulin from plasma in these patients was unexpectedly low. They suggested that in adults, patients with diabetes, antibodies to the insulin molecule is an alien, which inactivate insulin and lead to slower release of insulin from the plasma. When you first try to publish their observations, they were refused, while scientists have believed that the insulin molecule is too small to cause the formation of antibodies. However, over time, data from I. and Burson, have been recognized.
In 1959, Mr.. YA. and Berson in studies of diabetes published description ROME. Since that time, the method used in laboratories around the world for the measurement of low concentrations of hormones and other substances in the body, previously not detected. The method can also be used to identify substances in fluids or tissues, . to detect hepatitis B virus in donated blood, . for early diagnosis of cancer and determine the level of neurotransmitters (substances, . involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the synapses), or hormones in the tissue or plasma.,
. RIM used to measure the level of growth hormone in children with unusually low growth to determine the cause of dwarfism, . to trace the path of leukemia viruses in the stages prior to tumor development, . to identify patients with peptic ulcer disease and defining a new class of neurotransmitters in the brain - cholecystokinin, . who may participate in developing a sense of saturation (the subjective sensation of fullness of the stomach),
. YA. also believed that RIM may be used for clinical otseki infectious diseases.
In 1968, when Berson became the head of the department of medicine at the medical school in New York, I. was appointed Acting Director of the radioisotope service in the state veterans hospital. The following year she was appointed director of radioimmunoassay in the same laboratory, and in 1970 he. - Director of Medical Services isotope. In 1972. YA. become the leading medical researcher in the public hospital veterans. After the sudden death of Berson in 1972. YA. - Head of the newly established laboratory Solomon A. Berson in the state veterans hospital. From 1968 to 1974. She works as a professor-researcher in the Department of Medicine Medical School, where in 1974. receives the title of Distinguished Professor.
Half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977. I was awarded. 'for the development of radioimmunological methods for determination of peptide hormones'. Another part was divided between Roger Giymenom and Andrew Victor Schally for similar work on the study of hormones in the brain. Because the prize is not awarded posthumously, Berson not received this award. Concluding the reading of the Nobel lecture, I. remarked that 'the first telescope opened the heavens, the first microscope opened the world of microbes; radioisotope method, as shown by RIM, has discovered the possibility of opening new perspectives in science and medicine'.
Between 1979 and 1986. YA. - Professor Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, both from 1980 to 1986. she directs the department of clinical sciences at Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center. Since 1986. it - professor of medical school.
In 1943, Mr.. YA. married Aaron Yalow, whom she met at the University of Illinois, they have a son and a daughter.
Among the numerous awards and honors I. - International award Gardner Fund (1971), the prize for scientific achievement of the American Medical association (1975), A Prize. Kress Morrison in the natural sciences of the New York Academy of Sciences, she - a member of the Radiation Research Society, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Society of Endocrinologists and the National Academy of Sciences